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4i Dy a Fasci Nati Nc

leaves, tree, buds, winter and leaf

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A FASCI NATI NC, 4'I' DY Most people consider themselves lucky to know the commonest trees during the growing season. recognizing them by their leaves, flowers, or fruit. But when winter comes they can hardly be sure of a, maple, or even an elm. It is not easy to grasp distinctions of shape, habit of liritnchim, or the characters of bark, and oxpress these things in words. if people only knew that each species of tree has a characteristic winter sHature, which is imprinted hundreds of times on each individual tree, they could transform many a dull winter Clav into hours of delight.

This tree signature is no fanciful thing, and it does not require a Ile who rims may if he will but break off a twig as he runs. Thp winicr 1,1(11 (111,1 the hift' Ncm. 7T lot it. the tree's autograph, n sign that is never misleaditv.— a sign that is as easy to recognize as are leaves or flowers or fruits.

Ito you want a young tulip tree to transplant from the woods in early March? Y()11 sa\V a fine one in the SI1111111eY time. (;o out to dig it, and your eyes. and your memory, will tell you \dila one it is. The tulip tree has a charmeteristic bud. Once seen, it will never he con fused with kids of other trees.

The study of winter buds is a fascinating business. You may begin at anv time after midsummer, for then the buds are well grown and the leaves are loosening their hold. Learn one at a time. Tear ott a leaf or two a familiar tree and ni.?tice the bud and the leaf scar. You will not forget. In winter von will find those well-remembered characters' in the \\"( )(Os, and thereby know the tree that them.

new interest in trees will be roused within von. They are not dead things. They are only sleeping. rususpected beauties of form and color are discovered by you in winter buds. The various modes of wrapping and packing and varnishing by which the precious young Shoots are protected from injury by wind and weather—all these are things that challenge your attention, and lead Volt into heretofore undreamed of.

Break ott a willow twig. Its buds are pointed, and each is clothed for winter with a leathery hood, made all in one piece.

and attached around the base of the bud. 'rids leathery hood has a delicate lining membrane. There are willows and willows, but their buds all have these, characteristics. The whole twig grew last slimmer from a single winter bud.

What is the most noticeable thing about the upper and lower half of the What is its signili , cance? Willow leaves are slender and light. They leave small sears under the buds. Larger. broader leaves could not be so thickly set upon the twig without seriously interfering Ay ith each other.

The buttonwood, which we call sycamore, makes no show of winter buds until the leaves begin to fall. You might think it an utterly improvident tree, if the swollen bases of the leaves did not tempt von to investigate. The hollow tent-like bases of the leaf stems fasten down all around the 'dump, conical buds. Like the willow, the sycamore bud wears it cap made of a siiigie brown scale. Even alter the leaves are fallen, one usually has no trouble in finding somo buds that still wear these summer leaf caps, the petiole having broken off above them.

The bases of locust, leaves cover the buds while they are growing,, and when the leaves fall only the very tip is uncovered. so deeply does the bud lie buried in the stein. So with the honey locust and the Judas tree and others of the pod-bearers.

The velvety antlers of the staghorn sumac often carry over winter the bases of their youngest leaves. lm spring these are loosened and pushed off by buds that are ered by them in the fashion already seen in the sycamore.

One can generally judge in winter of the size Of the leaf a certain tree bears by the scar it leaves, and by the sturdiness of the twig itself. By these tokens we know that the horse chestnut has a large and heavy leaf. The dots that show so plainly on its broad triangular tell where fil•ous bundles bound the leaf firmly to the stem. There is a dot for each leaflet. Through these vascular bundles came also the sap which fed the leaf, and hack through them flowed the return currents by which each individual leaf contributed to the In mrishment of the other parts of the tree.

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