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Some Insect Enemies of Fruit Trees

tree, insects, scale, spring and caterpillars

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The Apple-tree Tent-catopilla• is a chewing insect naturally infests the wild cherry. It has become a serious pest upon apple trees. A band of eggs covered by a dark varnish may be found on the twigs in winter time. In spring tiny caterpillars emerge and begin to feed upon the opening leaves. If undisturbed. the caterpillars go on defoliat ing the branch on which they hatched, and begin spinning a silken tent in which they may be found at nights and on stormy days. Grown large, they range widely over the tree, often spinning themselves down to the ground and going to other trees. The full grown cater pillar leaves the tree in early summer and spins a loose white cocoon on a fence or building, or in a curled leaf. The moth that soon emerges returns to the orchard and lays her eggs upon an apple twig to hatch the following spring.

The caterpillars are hungry and helpless for the first few days after hatching. The, tree is just opening, its leaves. A thorough spraying with Paris Green solution at this time is the most effective thing the fruit grower can do. After the little tents begin to show in spring, an effective method is to go through the orchard in the early morn ing with a long pole on the end of which is a cotton swab soaked in oil. The nests containing the inactive caterpillars are wiped out and destroyed. In the home garden, collecting the egg masses is simply and easily done when winter priming is going on.

&ale Insects and Bark Lice lie close upon the bark of twigs and branches and on the skin of leaf and fruit. They suck the juices of the tree. The San Jose scale is the most dreaded of these enemies of fruit trees. In early summer the your begin to come, out from the protection of the mother scale, and null about before they settle down and begin to feed and secrete a scale. While they are active the tree should be sprayed with a kerosene and water mixture or with a wash made with whale oil soap. The delicate bodies of the young insects can survive neither. In winter the half grown hiber nate under their shells. If sprayed with kerosene emulsion many

of these (lie of suffocation.

Scale insects may be exterminated if they are fumigated thoroughly with hydrocyanic gas. Great tents large enough to cover a tree are sueeessfully used in California to fumigate orange trees for the San Jose scale. Nurserymen now have fumigating houses, where the young fruit trees are fumigated before being sent to the customer. ln many states this matter is regulated by law.

114 The i.IsI i(l.,, 0) Pnolt Lice, are small Snekiiu insects \V1lich are particu la riv destructive to fruit trees. 'Cher are (11th/ lilt to combat. '1'heV often attack the roots as as the parts above ground, .0 id their nnultipliea tiun is narveil00slv rapid. Nerusene omulsi(a is a 5 vereign 5] eel It is lest spranv-al on in earl spring \v hen the aphids are few, aucd the leaves are snnal]. The notorious Phylloxera, or J Louse, an insect ;Which attacks routs and Vines, and has battled all efforts to exterminate it, is an aphid. Certain Vmerican gape vines are resistant to the P11 l loxera, and the Old World gape vines are 110w being grafted American stock.

Tic' C'Rcealie is the eanse of «Vormy pinaus and cherries. This Little Turk,'' as it is Ca] is the plum grower's worst enemy. It is a small snout beetle whose larva lives within the flesh of the unripe fruit. The pupa state is passed underground. It is the adult female against which var hacs to be waged. To spraty for the curculiu is almost useless, as she has a horny armor, and she probes the skin of the fruit with the tip of her long moved snout. She bores a hole in the side of the fruit, inserts one egg, and cuts a characteristic little crescent tinder each one. The most successful anode of eombating the cnrenlio is to ]a r each tree and catch the falling 1eet]es in a. hopper ul ca nva \vlaicla is rigged 111)011 wheels to run under the tree. A bucket contain ing oil swings below and the insects roll into it. This work is best done in tile ear] y morning_ .

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