THE BLACK OAKS.
A type of the biennial group is the Black Oak, ()norms colctinct. It carries its half-grown acorns over winter, and ripens them the following season. Its bark is black, rough and deeply furrowed, with orange inner bark that yields the dye known to commerce as Qiwrcitrun. The tree grows to large size, and is distributed from Maine to Texas. I is thick. ascending branches form an open, loose head. The leaves are very variable, sometimes distinguishable from the scarlet oak only by their coarser texture and by their stouter petioles. The average leaf is widest toward the its live lobes subdividing and terminating in bristly points, which are the ends of the ribs. These bristles are generally whipped off before the end of the season. The opening leaves are red and velvety above and downy underneath. They keep some traces of their downy lining all summer, whde the upper surfaces are shiny and dark green. In autumn they change to russets and dull reds. The stout twigs and pointed brown buds are covered in winter a rusty wool. The acorn of the Black Oak is pointed and deeply set in a cup covered with loose pointed scales that do not tighten nor round in ward at the rim. Its kernel is hitter and yellow.
The Scarlet Oak, Qitereits coceinert, is so named from the brilliancy of its autumn folia;re. The flowers hint at the same and the unfolding lea yes a re of a rosy The leaves are thin and smooth, and cut by deep rieuilled sinuses. The live to seven lobes end each in two or more bristly points. The acorn is like that of the black oak, except that the scales of its cup are close, and round in at the top, and its kernel is white. The hark is gray outside and reddish un derneath. The Scarlet Oak is beau tiful at all seasons. It is a favorite ornamental tree in America and Europe.
The Bed Oak, chrrio,ts iwinw, is one of the most stately of the oaks. It has a wide horizontal spread, and forms a rounded, dome-like top. Its wood is coarse, a11(1 reddish brown ; its hark smooth, brownish gray, with a tinge of red in it. The leaves, which are variable in outline, always
have triangular lohes that point m the direction of the tip, differing, as is plainly seen, from the leaves of the black and scarlet oaks. The number of lobes is seven or nine. The leaves are thin, and smooth on the lower surface. They come out pink in spring, with white down beneath. They turn in autumn to a fine (lark red, or to various shades of russet,. The huge acorn sits in a salter. rather than a cup, that holds it fast by the close hietirvilig The kernel is white and hitter. The of the lied Oak is from _Irtine to Georgia, and west to Kansas and Alinnesuta.
Slender as pins are the twig's and small branches of the Pin Oak, Otereas palltstris. The central shaft, to the top, the pendu lous lower branches, and the gradually shortening upper limbs give the tree a regular pyramidal shape in its youth which is suggestive of the conifers, rather than the broad-leaved trees. It is a favorite tree for parks and avenues. Rut its wonderful grace and symmetry are lost as the tree approaches middle age. and it, takes on a rugged and pic turesque irregularity. The leaves resem ble those of the scarlet oak, but are cleft by wider sinuses. The acorns are small and round, set in a shallow saucer. The tree grows from New England to Min nesota, and south as far as Maryland and Arkansas.
The Scrub Oak, Otercitsponi/(t, is a dwarf among the oak trees. It grows in colonies among the rocks where soil is pour and scarce. Its leaves are some what like those of the post oak in out line. It grows in New England and among, the foothills of the ghenies. It is also called the Oak, its rapid spreadin•. Another shrubby oak which likes to on barren areas is the.
ilark Jack, Querous It has small, pear-shaped leaves, which ti•(t often shallowly th•ec-lobed at the apex. It is 101111(1 from New York to Kansas, and south to Florida.