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Tue Walni Ts

walnut, tree, black, walnuts and nuts

TUE WALNI "TS The Black Ilralnut..fityl(ms niu ret, was one of the giants in the primeval forests of eastern North America. Now it is rarely met with above medium height. An occasional speci men which time and the lumberman have spared, may stand one hundred and fifty feet high in rich soil. There is something at one majestic and melancholy in the poise of such a tree. with its towering trunk. and dark, drooping crown. The leaves of the Black Walnut when crushed and the hull of the globular fruit have a rich aromatic odor. The smooth pitted outer rind turns low as it ripens. The hard shell beneath it is dark colored and deeplv sculptured. The kernel is sweet, but contains much oil, which unfor tunately soon becomes rancid. this account, there is but a local and temporary market for the ants.

East of the Alleghenies the Black Walnut is not a common tree. West, as far as Minnesota. and Texas, it occurs more frequently. The wood is coarse-grained. purplish brown, and has a silvery luster when polished. It is very scarce and high-priced now. and is used chiefly in veneering. Old stumps are bought •wherever they can be found p .

Id NU II II ft o lie L111:, it The Butternut or Oilnut. einerm, is a smaller tree, with rougher bark than the black By it tendency to develop the under laid on the twig the branches acquire a horizontal rather than an upward trend, which gives the tree a broad domelike crown. supported by a short. stout trunk. The color of the trunk is light brown ; of the Branches. grayish green. The twigs and leaves and husks of the nuts are clammy when growing. and with a. soft pubescence. The oblong nuts have, when ripe. \wrinkled husks under which the I 11 • . • _ . . 1 • 1 rill n is cut into heel). tun'. irregular e kernel is sweet and pleasant of flavor, but like the black walnut, it soon becomes rancid. The wood of lint tutu it is paler brown than black walnut, lint it is in no points inferior a an orna mental wood. In house finishing Butternut is particularly beautiful. the `• natural wood finish bringing out the quiet tones of brown and the soft luster of the grain. Compared with it, black walnut. woodwork in a house always looks somber ,flid severe. The Butternut is a quick growing tree, and is so liable to attacks by insect and fungous ene mies that we find few trees sound that have attained to middle age. The long arms of the tree break easily in the wind. The twigs of all walnuts have chambered pith, which makes the entrance of fmigi easy and the healing of wounds difficult.. The Butternut grows from

New Brunswick to Georgia, ,tiid west to the Dakotas and Arkansas.

The English or Persian Walnut, •cyia, now so profitably grown in southern California, spread l(Aig ago from Asia .Iinor to (lung, then west to Europe. It is a tender tree, and will not endure our north ern winters. Were its fruit less val uable it would still be planted for its lumber, which much resembles the blatk walnut., and is not inferior to it. It is also cultivated for orna ment in southern climes.

The Japanese Walnut, laylans Sicboldiaiia, a small tree of the but ternut type, has recently been intro duced into this country, and prom ises to become a profitable not tree in the regions where the English walnut is In it hardy. It is a prolific bearer, and its fruit is said to be superior to that of our native species.

The walnuts tend to vary and to intercross and produce natural hybrids. New varieties have been produced by artificial crosses. While 1. 1 orticulturists are propagating and exploiting these new and better kinds of walnuts, it behooves us all to keep planting the old kinds, especially in areas from which the trees have been taken. We may thus atone for the sins of our forefathers. who stripped the land of the first walnut crop and had not the foresight to provide for another.

Walnuts are not hard to grow. The nuts should lie stratified over winter ; that is, buried in layers of sand or soil. This keeps them moist, while the frost weakens or cracks _ the shells. In the spring they are ready for planting. Cracking the shell by hand just he fore planting is often done, Ina is likely to injure the embryo. Plant ing the nuts in the fall invites theft by squirrels. However, many line young grove have I seen from freshly gathered nuts planted where the trees in Av stand. The most im portant rule is, after an, plant thcip.

As street doorvard trees. our two native walnuts have some drawbacks.

The leaves ap pear late in the spring, and the yellowing foliage is shed early in the fall. They are commonly infested by caterpillars and other insect enemies. Until the spraying of shade trees becomes a common practice. let us set them, not in our front yards, but hack a little, where the perspective is just right to emphasize their fine stature miid luxuriant foliage. while obscuring unpleasant details.