CAMOUFLAGE. In the World War of 1914-18 the old art of disguise in warfare was raised to a science and given the new French name, " camouflage." Under the new conditions of airplane scouting it be came of supreme importance to conceal trenches, forti fications, guns, "snipers," and observation posts.
Sometimes this was done by piling branches on the object to be concealed. Sometimes it was covered with canvas painted to resemble a natural object. At times "faked" fortifications and batteries of " Quaker" (make-believe) guns were constructed to direct atten tion away from the real fortifications and guns.
Screens of dense black smoke were often created to conceal the advance of troops or the operation of ships.
Often the principles of "protective coloring" found in the animal world were used, and guns, automobiles, freight trains, and the like were painted in zigzag bands or blotches of light and shade, to break up the sharp outlines of the object. Disguise of this sort was applied especially to ships, not so much with a view to rendering them invisible as to make the aim of an attacking submarine uncertain.
The camellia belongs to the same family as the tea-plant Ternstroemiaceae. There are about ten species. The seeds of some kinds are rich in oil, which forms an article of com merce in the Orient.