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CHIMNEYS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF A BOILER At the present time, the knowledge of chimneys and chimney draft is slight. The theories given are worth but little as they are based upon data which is entirely insufficient. As to the design and proportions of chimneys, there are no systematic statements and rules that can be used.

Chimneys are usually designed from empirical formulas and from tables, compiled from proportions of chimneys that have furnished sufficient draft, etc.

The draft produced in a chimney is due to the difference in temperature, and consequently difference in pressure, between the gases inside the chimney, and the air outside. The gases in the chimney being lighter rise toward the top and air rushes in at the bottom to fill the space left by the hot gases. This air as it becomes heated grows lighter and rises, thus a continuous circulation is kept up. The temperature of the gases in the chimney is considered to be about 600° F. for chimney calculation, as practice shows this to give good draft under economical conditions.

After making several assumptions, based on experiments, the following formula has been deduced : H. P. = 3.33 (A — .6*sqrt(A))*sqrt(h) in which H. P. = horse-power, A = area of the chimney, and h = the height above the grate.

The following table on page 46 has been calculated from this formula. This table is used to a considerable extent with satisfactory results.

The part of the table which is used for ordinary proportions is filled in. If proportions are taken from the table rather than from the formula, the results will give better proportions.

To find the area of the top of the chimney for a given coal consumption, the following empirical formula has been stated.

A= (H.P. x B x 12)/sqrt(h) in which A = area, H. P. = horse-power of boiler, B = number of pounds consumed per H. P. per hour and h = height of chimney in feet.

This area A is the area in square inches at the top.

Another method which is much more simple is to design the area of the chimney, as we have designed the total tube area; that is, about the grate area. This ratio for chimneys is sometimes about + and decreases to s and for very tall chimneys to 1/16.

From the table we find the chimney to have an area at the top of about 3.98 square feet, assuming it to be 60 or 70 feet high. This area gives a diameter of 27 inches if circular, or 24 inches if square.

Let us calculate it from the formula A = (H. P. x B x 12)/sqrt (h) We must either assume or calculate B. As the calculation is very easy it would be better than any assumption. The total amount of coal burned per hour equals 12 X 24 or 288 pounds. The amount per H. P. per hour is 288/75 or 3.84 pounds.

Then assuming the chimney to be 60 feet high, A = (75 x 3.84 x 12)/sqrt(60) = 446 square inches, or about 24 inches in diameter if circular and 21 inches if square.

By the last method the area of the chimney will be 24/8 or 3 square feet, or 432 square inches, giving practically the same result as with the formula.

As the table is reliable and gives us the larger area, we will use it and be on the safe side ; also as the amount of coal burned per hour by the draft in a chimney can be found by multiplying the horse-power in the above table by 5, the chimney with an area of 3.98 square feet and 60 feet high will burn 72 X 5 = 360 pounds of coal per hour. The boiler in question burns only 288 pounds, so the chimney is sufficiently large.

Chimneys are usually of brick or of steel plates. If of steel they are always circular. When made of brick they are circular, square or hexagonal. With a given draft area, a circular chimney requires the least material, since a circumference has the least perimeter for a given area; it also presents less resistance to wind.

• A steel chimney is made up of plates of steel riveted together. The shell is bolted through a foundation ring of cast iron to the stone foundation. It has a straight taper to the top, which is finished, for appearance with light plates. The shell is lined with fire-brick, with a thickness which varies from 12 to 18 inches at the bottom to about 2 to 4 inches at the top. This lining is used to prevent heat being lost from the shell and does not add to the strength of the chimney.

A brick chimney is built in two parts ; a the outer shell, which resists wind pressure and h,the lining which is the flue. This flue is made separate from the. external shell in order that it may expand, when the chimney is full of hot gases, without straining the outer shell.

The interior of both steel and brick chimneys are often cylindrical while the exterior tapers. The taper is about .3 inch to the foot. The brick at the base of the chimney is splayed out to make a large base.

As good natural earth should carry from 2000 to 4000 pounds per square foot, the base of the chimney should be large enough so that this pressure will not be exceeded.

The external shell is calculated for wind pressure and the weight of brick. This calculation for wind pressure involving higher mathematics will not be treated here. The lining is calculated for compression due to weight. The design, both of the chimney and its foundation, should be made by a competent engineer of experience, on account of disastrous results should a chimney fall.