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End Plate for Construction of Boilers

tubes

END PLATE FOR CONSTRUCTION OF BOILERS The end plate or tube sheet is usually made 1/16 or 1/8inch thicker than the shell plates. This is done for additional stiffness, and increase of strength ; the plate being weakened by drilling the holes for the ends of the tubes.

The tubes should be arranged in vertical and horizontal rows, if possible, in order that the rising bubbles of steam may not be hindered. To get good circulation the horizontal spaces should be a little greater than the vertical, and a central circulating space should be provided, if the necessary number of tubes can be put in without using the entire space. The tubes should be from 3/4 to 1 inch apart, and to prevent burning of the tubes, the top row at least 3 inches below the water level, and the bottom tubes 6 inches from the shell. At this point, a drawing of the end plate should be made, to show the arrangement of tubes, etc. If it is impossible to put in the required number of tubes, without raising the water level, the diameter of the boiler must be increased. If we wish to increase the heating surface without increasing the diameter we can use smaller tubes or make the boiler a little longer.