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Hittite Civilization

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HITTITE CIVILIZATION Generalities. Law.—The cuneiform inscriptions of Bo ghazkeui show that Hittite civilization had reached a high level. In this civilization the cuneiform script and many other elements were borrowed from Babylon, yet the invention of a native hieroglyphic script, the rich and original Hittite cuneiform litera ture, the art monuments and other manifestations of Hittite culture, all prove that in spite of all borrowings, due to their comparatively late entry into the civilization of Asia, the Hittites are in no way inferior to the Babylonians and Egyptians.

In the state archives of Boghazkeui, there was found a series of so-called vocabularies, a kind of lexicon, with Sumerian in the first column, Babylonian in the second and Hittite in the third; for example : Sumerian gu = Babylonian reshu "head" = Hittite khalanta (cf. Latin Galva, Armenian xalam "skull") . If we add Khattish, Luish and Khurrish to these three languages, we per ceive that there were writers and scholars in the Hittite kingdom, who were masters of six languages.

The historical literature of the Hittites is rich and varied. There exist extremely important State treaties of the great Hittite kings with their vassals, and other powers abroad, diplo matic correspondence; annals of the Hittite kings, their procla mations, which treat the problems of politics and administration (for instance: the succession of the throne, disputes between individual cities, etc.), deeds of royal gifts and so on.

The strict military and political organization of the new Hittite kingdom is clearly portrayed in these documents. The same picture of an administration, ordered and regulated to the smallest details, is presented to us by the preserved prescriptions for dif ferent palace and temple employes. A well organized kingdom must also have its code of laws. The Hittite code (published by Hrozny) in two parts, containing about 200 paragraphs, gives us a deep insight into Hittite justice. In regard to punishment it is much milder than that of Khammurabi, Assyria or the Israel ites. Mutilations and the death penalty were only seldom imposed in the Hittite kingdom ; the Hittite code was very indulgent to certain sexual crimes which throws a not very favourable light on the sexual morality of this nation. A longer section of the Hit tite code of laws, regulating prices in the Hittite kingdom is in the economic regard very important. Partly from this, partly from other texts, we learn that the Hittites, like other nations of the ancient East, cultivated especially barley, Triticum dicoccum (a kind of spelt) and wheat ; that they brewed beer from barley malt after the manner of the Babylonians, and that wine also played an important part among them. The whole economic position of the Hittite kingdom was founded on agriculture and the raising of cattle; beekeeping was zealously cultivated. Silver pieces, which were weighed according to the Babylonian system (manes, etc.) were used as circulating medium. In the domain of material civilization, the Babylonians were in many things the teachers of the Hittites who arrived in Asia much later than they.

The Hittite Pantheon.—The numerous religious texts in the archives of Boghazkeui familiarize us with the religion of the Hittites. The Hittite Pantheon, which is known also to us from the State treaties, where all possible gods, "a thousand gods" are summoned as witnesses and in support of the treaty, and which may be here assembled for the first time in its principal divinities, is very mixed. Sumerian-Babylonian, Assyrian, Khurrish, Indo European-Hittite, Luish and Indian elements are here bewilder ingly blended together. The Weather god and the Sun god dess are the chief divinities. We do not know the names they bore in the proper Khatti territory; in the Khurrish-Mitannish country they were called Teshup and Khepit (Khepa). The weather gods of Nerig and Zippalanda are the sons of the weather god of Khattushash and the sun goddess of the city Arinna ( = Euyuk [ ?]) ; this is also the case with the god of the fields, Telepinush, to whom can be traced back the hero Telephos, specially honoured in Mysia and Lycia ; the goddess Mezzullash is daughter to this divine pair, the goddess Zentukhish or Zin dukhijash is the grandchild. The exact position of the goddess Lelvanish in this family circle is uncertain. (By this analysis of the Hittite Pantheon the chief Hittite gods on the rock reliefs at Yasili-Kaya can now be successfully identified. From left to right they are : the Storm-god, Sun-goddess, Telepinush, Mez zullash and Zentukhish [or Lelvanish ?]. The hieroglyphs which accompany the names of these gods can be now adequately inter preted). The wife of Telepinush is called Khatepinush. The sacred bulls of the weather god of Khattushash are called Sherish and Khurrish. Of secondary origin in this circle is the goddess Khepit. The very important god of male virtues, mar or Inarash, is certainly of Indo-European origin (of period Skt. NARA, Gr. avrtp, "man") ; according to a conjecture of Kretschmer he was bor rowed by the early Indians (cf. Indara-Indra) from the Hit tites. The Hittite god Indra, Indara, may be found—as may here be established for the first time—also in the Egyptian Rameses treaty in the form `ntrtj which, according to Lexa, is probably the Egyptian word for "goddess," Coptic N TW P E. Apparently the Egyptians simply identified the name of the god Indara, which was unknown to them, with this Egyptian word. Possibly all the divinities of this kind are comprehended in the name Innaravan tash (probably Plur. ; Sing. innaravanza, Keilschr.-Urk. aus Bogh. 17, Nr. 20, 11.3), Luish Annarummenzi. For the other Hittite deities, who are also adored by the Indians Arunash "Sea" (cf. Ind. Varuna) and Agnish (cf. Ind. Agni) see also above. Be sides the "Great Sea" which also plays an important part in the Hittite myths, the Hittites worshipped also the Heavens, the Earth, mountains, rivers, wells, winds and clouds. A deity of field fruits is apparently Khalkish, sometimes named with Telepinush and probably of Indo-European origin. Another god who bears probably an Indo-European name, is Vaslsdulashshish whose name is derived from the Hittite vashdul = "transgression, sin." (Cf. Lat. vasto.) Another Hittite divinity is the father of the gods, Kumarpish, who may have been borrowed from the Khurrish Kumarve, and who plays also an important part in the Hittite mythology. He is sometimes identified with the Babylonian Earth god Enlil, but is also worshipped beside him. His messenger is called Mukisha nush (of Babylonian origin?). Related to the god Inarash are probably the gods Alash (who must not be confounded with the goddess Aldsh), Zitkharijash, whose cult arose in the city Zit khara, Karzish, Khapantalijash or Khapatalijash, and perhaps also the god Pirinkir or Pirikar. According to a text the god Inarash was worshipped under no less than 112 forms. Others are the deities Birvash (comp. the Syrian deity Biruva, Rawl. III. 66, Rev. I. 19), Mali jash, "the mother" Kamrushepash or Kam marushepash, who appears in Hittite myths, and the goddess (or god?) Ashkashepash. The goddesses Nenattash or Ninattash and Kulittash may be regarded as connected to a certain degree with the goddesses Ishtar and Ishkhara; Ninattash is probably bor rowed from the Sumerian-Babylonian goddess Nina, while again, Kulittash can be traced back to the Sumerian-Babylonian goddess Cula, the "great lady doctor" ; instead of Kulittash, also Gulittash may be read. (Comp. the Syrian goddesses Ninitum and Kulittum, Rawl. III. 66, Rev. I, 27. 28.) Of great importance are the Hittite tutelar deities of the house and of the grave, Kulshesh or Kulash shesh and MAH-nesli. From the first name are probably derived the names of the Etruscan deities Culsans, who was the pro tector of the gates, and of Culsu, the goddess of the nether world. (For the relations of the Etruscans to the Hittites see Hrozny in Zeitschrift fur Assyriologie, 1928.) To the Hittite tutelar deities belong also Zukkish (or Zunkish) and Anzilish. The following deities may also be named here : Khullash, Jarrish, Zappanash (Zampanash, Zapnash), Khashammilish or Khash milish, Khilashshish, Taravash, Jajash, Pentarukhshish, Ndrash (originally a Babylonian river god?), Namsharash or Napsharash (of Sumerian-Babylonian origin? Comp. the Sumerian-Baby lonian primeval gods Ninshar, Enmeshara, Ninmeshara?), Minkish or Munkish, Ammu(n)kish, Tukhushish or Tushshish (related to the Hittite word antukhshish, "man"?), Ammezadush, Alalush (of Sumerian-Babylonian origin), and Apantum (originally Baby lonian??).

Other aboriginal Sumerian-Babylonian divinities in the Hittite Pantheon are: the Heaven god Anush and his wife Antum, the Earth god Enlil and his wife Ninlil, the Sea god Ea and his wife Damkina and his son Marduk, the Moon god Sin and his wife Ningal, Nikkal, the god of the underworld Nergal and his wife Ereshkigal or Allatum, the goddesses Ishtar and Ishkhara, the war god Zababa, and others. Many of the Babylonian divinities were included in the Hittite Pantheon only because the Hittite priests diligently studied the religious literature of the Babylonians : their existence in the realm of the Hittite gods, is therefore somewhat theoretical. On the other hand not a few of the Babylonian names of divinities in Hittite inscriptions may in reality be only ideo grams, expressing the names of Hittite native gods. The influence of Babylonia upon the religion of the Hittites, though certainly great, may therefore have been much less than seems to be the case, on the first glance, on the basis of the graphical impression of the names of deities.

Among the numerous local Hittite gods whose names are of interest, the following may be mentioned : Khantidashshush of the city Khurma, Katakhkhash, also Khatakhkhash or Khataggash of Ankuva, the goddess Shartijash, the "queen" (Babylonian in origin; but cf. also Hittite shardijash "helper"?) of Katapa, Mammash or Ammammash of Takhurpa, Khallarash of Dunna, Gazbdja (Babylonian in origin?) and Khuvashshannash of Khzoishna, Tapishuva of Ishkhupitta, Bilat or Belti (Baby lonian) and Kunijavannish of Leinda (cf. Laranda), Zashkha bzndsh or Zakhabunash or Zakhbunash of Kaslitarna, Khd shi gashnavanza (comp. the name of the city Khashslikkas1an vanta) and Mullijarash of Lavvazantija (cf. Lauzados), the god desses Aldsh of Karakhna, Ziilicnash of Shugazzija, Tashimish of Likhshina, Lushitish of Nenashsha, Shakhkhashsharash of Tuvanuva (=Tyana), Shuvanzipash of Shuvanzana, Navatijalash of Zarvisha, Vashkhalijash of Kharziuna, Zanduza of Sliallapa, Ammamash of Khakhana, Katakhkhash of Tavinija, Karmakhish of Kalimuna, Karunash of Kariuna, Tamishshijash of Tabikka (cf. the modern Dabik in Syria), Bishanukhish of Kumanni (Comana) and Apdrash of SIaamzkha in the so-called "Upper Land." Notice also these names of Hittite gods : Kharishtashshish, Kattishkhapish (Khattish), Tashimmet (Khattish? or comp. Babylonian Tashmetu?), Vagezzel (Khattish), Valizilish or Valizalish (Khattish), Teteshkhapish (Khattish), Shullinkat tish (Khattish), Apish, Aduntarish, Zulkish, Irbitigash, Kar makhilish, Zilibfiirish, Negmish, Menkishurish, Zibarvd or Zabarvd (in Paid) etc.

The worship of the gods Shantash (cf. Sandon) and Tarkhunza (cf. Tarku) was characteristic of Lliya-Arzava especially; for Annarumenzi. In Arzava was also the deity Ulili jaslishish, in the apparently Luish city Ishtanuva or Ashtanuva among other divinities also Shuvashunash, Vandush, Jashallashshish or Yashalla worshipped. Teshup and Khepit (Khepa) were wor shipped in Khurri-Mitanni. For the Aryan gods of these countries and for Kumarve see above. Among the other gods of these countries were the goddess Shaushgash, further Shimegi, Easharri (Babylonian), Shdlush (Babylonian), Lelleirish, etc. The Pantheon of Shamukha is also closely related. Hittite-Khattish, Luish, Khurrish and Babylonian elements are mingled in the Pantheon of Kizvatna.

Hittite Mythology.—Among the numerous, though mostly badly preserved Hittite mythological texts, the first to be men tioned may be that of the disappearance of the offended god of vegetation Telepinush, who brings bad growth, sterility and famine in his train, and of his reappearance, which produces a new fruit fulness. The connection of this myth with the ancient oriental myths of Tammuz, Adonis, Attis, etc. is plainly evident. It is interesting, that the gods have Telepinush sought among others also by an eagle and even a bee. Another myth relates to the struggle between the weather god and the serpent Illujankash, and still another relates to the sea (?) serpent Khedaminush (Sumerian-Babylonian? cf. Khedimme-azag, the daughter of the Ocean, resp. Eas) and the goddess Ishtar. Another myth, though not completely preserved, is that of the goddess Asher tusk, identical with the west-Semitic goddess Ashirtu-Ashera, who attempts to seduce the weather god. On his refusal Ashertush contrives that the refusal should appear to be on her side; evi dently a parallel to the Old Testament story of Potiphar's wife! The storm-god then betakes himself to Elkunirshash, husband of Ashertusli, and relates what has happened. Another badly pre served myth is that related of Gurpa-Aranzakhush, probably king of a city Ailanuva, situated, evidently in Asia Minor, who married Tatizulish, the daughter of King Irnpa-akrush of Accad in Baby lonia, and who resides at the court at Accad, and is there sought for by the river-god Aranzakhash, the personification of the water from the weather god's head. This myth may be a feeble reflec tion of some historical event. Another myth relates the story of a rich man, Abbush (is the name Babylonian?), who lives in the Lulluvaja country in the city of Shudul, situated on the sea-shore, to whom nothing is wanting (Heth. vakkari; cf. Lat. vaco!) but a son and a daughter. In his trouble he seeks the help of the sun goddess. Abbush, apparently, then has two sons, one good and one bad, who later on divide the paternal inheritance and sepa rate; but this text also is very incompletely preserved.

In Hittite countries the Babylonian myth of

Gilgamesh was much in favour. Fragments of the Gilgamesh Epos have been discovered in Boghazkeui, written in Babylonian, Hittite and Khurrish. There existed also indigenous adaptations of this grateful material, inasmuch as Khuvavaish-Khumbaba of the Gil gamesh Epos, who dwells in the cedar wood, appears to have be longed originally to Khurri-Syria. Not less than 15 (possibly still more) tablets in Khurrish existed of the "Songs of Keshshesli," i.e., of Gilgamesh (called in Khurrish also Galgarnishul). The myth of Gilgamesh was related and songs of this hero were sung over the whole of Asia Minor. The Greeks of Asia Minor also were certainly familiar with the Gilgamesh epic, traces of which may be found in the Odyssey. It is not impossible that the name of Odysseus or Olysseus, Lat. Ulixes (as Gemser suggests in the Archiv f. Orientforschung III. 184) may be traced back to the Hittite name Ullush (from the Babylonian i.e., "carried away, distant") of the hero of the deluge story who dwelt apparently in the city Idlash (at the mouth of the rivers?). Khattish has a t/-sound, which is sometimes represented by t, at others by l (see above, the king's name Tlabarnash).

Religious Worship, Exorcisms, Omens.

We can learn much concerning the Hittite forms of worship, sacrifices, religious festivals, etc., from the archives of Boghazkeui. Rituals for various temple feasts and of her occasions of the public and private life, which request the intervention of the priest, recorded by priests and priestesses who are named by their names, have been preserved. Purifications, sacrifices, prayers and oaths are the chief features of Hittite worship, whereby many connections with and borrowings from Babylonia can be established. Illnesses and epidemics, famines, evil demons, domestic quarrels, etc., are banished from believers by the exorcists and sacrificial priests. Before every considerable undertaking the future and the will of the gods were ascertained by consulting them ; the liver of the sacrificial animals was examined; the flight of birds was observed, a prophetess was questioned, etc. Here the influence of Babylon is unmistakable. Clay models of livers used in hepatoscopy have been discovered in Boghazkeui, bearing Hittite or Babylonian inscriptions. The will of the gods was also revealed to men by ap pearances in the heavens, and all kinds of unusual occurrences on earth. All these signs and omens were interpreted by com petent priests. The manuals used by these priests in the inter pretation of omens are mostly of Babylonian origin. The Babylo nian influence and origin are disclosed by the astronomical astrological inscriptions of the Hittites, and by their medical treatises, written in both Hittite and Babylonian, which have been discovered at Boghazkeui. Here it may be remarked that also deeds of landed property and clay tablet catalogues have been found in Boghazkeui.

Hittite Art.

It is certain that, like the script documents, the artistic monuments, generally attributed to the Hittites, which have been discovered in the country between Smyrna and Tell Halaf on Khabur in Mesopotamia, are the work of not one, but of the several peoples described above. In the West the monu ments are essentially Khatti-Hittite, in the East, Khurri-Mitanni ; in Syria both spheres met and later on also Aramaic influence can be stated there. In the first centuries of the first millennium B.C. Assyrian influence was felt in the East, while late Assyrian art was not a little influenced by the Hittite-Khurrish. That this Hittite-Khurrish art in its beginning was dependent to a wide extent on Sumerian-Babylonian art, is obvious. Egyptian in fluence was added in the second millennium B.c. But in spite of all these external influences, Hittite-Khurrish art has its inde pendent nature, which is of value for the history of art. Hittite Khurrish artistic remains can never be confused with those of either Egypt or Babylonia. If Hittite-Khurrish monuments give a more naďve and awkward impression than the Egyptian or Baby lonian, this can be explained chiefly by the relatively short dura tion of Hittite-Khurrish civilization, which rendered impossible the attainment of a higher perfection. Hittite art motifs are also found in Greek art.

The application of whole series of reliefs to gates, accesses and bases of palace walls, as well as the use of wooden columns on stone bases are characteristic of Hittite-Khurrite building and architecture.

BIBLIOGRAPHY.

General: G. Contenau, Elements de bibliographie Bibliography.—General: G. Contenau, Elements de bibliographie hittite (1922 ; Supplement 1927) ; Indogermanz'sches Jahrbuch XI. and XII. (Hittite bibliography for 1924, 1925, 1926 from Friedrich) ; J. Garstang, The Land of the Hittites (191o) ; The Cambridge Ancient History, II. and III. (article on the Hittites by D. G. Hogarth) ; E. Meyer, Reich and Kultur der Hethiter (1914) ; G. Roeder, Aegypter and Hethiter 0919). Hieroglyphic Inscriptions: L. Messerschmidt, Corpus inscriptionum Hettiticarum (190o-06) , L. Messerschmidt, Bemerkungen zu den hethit. Inschriften (1898) ; F. E. Peiser, Die hettitischen Inschriften (1892) ; P. Jensen, Hittiter and Armenier (1898) ; A. H. Sayce, sundry essays in Proc. Soc. of Bibl. Arch. (1903 ff.) ; A. Gleye, Hettitische Studien (191o) ; R. C. Thompson, A New Decipherment of the Hittite Hieroglyphics (1913) ; A. E. Cowley, The Hittites (1920) ; C. Frank, Die Bogen. hett. Hieroglypheninschriften (1923) ; C. Frank, Studien zu d. "heth." Hieroglypheninschr. (1924) . Decipherment of Hittite and the other "Hittite" languages: J. A. Knudtzon, Die zwel Arzawa-Brie f e (1902) ; H. Winckler, Die im Sommer 1906 in Kleinasien ausgefiihrten Ausgrabungen (1906) ; H. Winckler, "Vorl. Nachrichten fiber Ausgrabungen in Boghazkoi im Sommer 1907" (in Mitt. D. Orientges. 1907) ; H. Winckler, Vorderasien im zweiten Jahrtausend (1913) ; F. Delitzsch, Sumerisch-akkadisch hettitische Vokabularfragmente (1914) ; F. Hrozny, Die Losung des hethitischen Problems (in Mitt. D. Orientges. 1915) ; F. Hrozny, Die Sprache der Hethiter, ihr Bau and ihre Zugehorigkeit zum Indogerman ischen Sprachstamm (1916-17) ; H. Holma, Etudes sur les vocabulaires sumeriens-accadiens-hittites (1916) ; E. Weidner, Studien zur heth. Sprachwissensch. (1917) ; C. Marstrander, Caractere indoeuropeen de la langue hittite (1919) ; E. Forrer, Die acht Sprachen der Boghazkoi Inschriften (1919) ; F. Hrozny, (Iber die Volker and Sprachen des alten Chatti-Landes (1920) ; F. Sommer, Hethitisches (1920-22) ; A. Debrunner, Sprache d. Hethiter (1921) ; G. Herbig, "Wege u. d. heth. Sprachforschung" (in Indog. Jahrb. VIII.) ; J. Friedrich "Die heth. Sprache" (in Zeitschr. D. Morg. Ges. 1922) ; E. Forrer, u. Sprachen d. Hatti-Reiches (ibid.) ; J. Friedrich, "Die bisherigen Ergebnisse d. teeth. Sprachforschung" (in Streitberg-Fest schrift 1924) ; J. Friedrich, "Altkleinasiatische Sprachen" (in Ebert, Reallex, d. Vorgesch. 1924) ; H. Pedersen, Groupement des dialectes indoeurop (1925) ; P. Kretschmer, "Varuna u. d. Urgesch. d. Inder" (in Wr. Zeitschr. f. Kunde d. Morg. 1926) ; P. Kretschmer, "Weiteres z. Urgesch. d. Inder" (in Zeitschr. f. vergl. Sprachforschung, 55) ; P. Kretschmer, "Die protindogermanische Schicht" (in Glotta, 14) ; F. Hrozny, "Etruskisch and die Hethitieschen Sprachen" in Zeitschrift f. Assyr. (1928) ; F. Hrozny, Hethiter and Inder (ibid.) .—For the Mitanni language: L. Messerschmidt, Mitannistudien (1899) ; F. Bork, Mitannisprache (1909). Hittite Cuneiform texts, editions and transla tions: Keilschrifttexte aus Boghazkoi (1916-23) ; Keilschrifturkunden aus Boghazkoi (1921 and foll.) ; Hittite texts in the cuneif. character of Brit. Mus. (1920) ; F. Hrozny Hethitische Keilschrifttexte aus Boghazkoi in Umschrift and Uebersetz. (1919) ; E. Forrer, Bogh-Texte in Umschrift (1922-26) ; Friedrich-Zimmern, Hethitische Gesetze (192 2) ; F. Hrozny, Code hittite (192 2) ; Sommer-Ehelolf, Das hethitische Ritual des Pelpanikri (1924) ; F. Friedrich, Aus d. hethit. Schrifttum (1925) ; A. Gotze, Hattuiilif, der Bericht fiber s. Thron besteigung (1925) ; J. Friedrich, Staatsvertr. d. Hatti-Reiches (1926) ; A. Gotze, Madduwattas (1928) ; E. H. Sturtevant, "The Tawagalawas Text" (in Am. Journ. of Sem. langu. and liter. 1928) ; sundry articles in Zeitschr. f. Assyriol. 33 ff. History, Geography and Anthropology: B. Meissner, Zur. Gesch. d. Chattireiches (191 7) ; F. Hrozny, Heth. Konige (1920) ; F. Hrozny, "Tlabarnas u. Tavannannas" (in Journ. Soc. Or. Research 1922) ; E. F. Weidner, Zug Sargon von Akkad n. Kleinasien (1922) ; E. F. Weidner, Politische Dokumente aus Kleinasien (1923) ; A. Ungnad, Die dltesten Volkerwander. Vorderasiens (1923) ; E. Meyer, Volksstdmme Kleinasiens u.d. Ausbreit. der Indogermanen (1925) ; A. Gotze, Kleinasien z. Hethiterzeit (1924) ; F. Bilabel, Gesch. Vorderasiens vom 16.-1r. Jh. v. Ch. (192 7) ; E. Forrer, "Vorhomer. Griechen in d. Keilschr. v. Boghazkoi" (in Mitt. D. Or.-G. 1924) ; J. Friedrich, "Werden in d. heth. Keilschr. d. Griechen erwahnt ?" (in Kleinas. Forsch. I.) ; A. Gotze, Das Hethiter-Reich (1928) . For the anthropology: v. Luschan, "The early inhab. of Western Asia" (in Journ. R. Anthr. Inst. 51). History of Civilization: E. Cuq, Lois hittites (1924) ; A. Puukko, Die altassyr. u. heth. Gesetze (1925) ; H. Zimmern, "Kampf d. Wettergottes mit der Schlange Illujankas" (in Streitbergfestgabe, 1924) ; H. Zimmern, "Religion d. Hethiter" (in Bilderatl. z. Religionsgesch., 1925) ; F. v. Reber, "Stellung d. Heth." (in d. Kunstgeschichte 1910) ; D. G. Hogarth, Hittite seals (1920) ; O. Weber, Kunst d. Hethiter (1921) ; G. Contenau, Glyptique syro hittite (1922) ; E. Pottier, L'art hittite (1926) ; D. G. Hogarth, Kings of the Hittites (1926) ; S. Przeworski, "Monuments hethitica" (in Hethitica, ed. by Hrozny, 1929 and foll.) . Excavations: Luschan-Kolde wey, Ausgrabungen in Sendschirli (1893, and foll.) ; Macridy Bey, La borte des sphinx a Euyuk (1908) ; O. Puchstein, Boghazkoi, die Bau werke (1912) ; Hogarth-Woolley, Carchemish (1914-21) ; F. Hrozny, "Rapport preliminaire sur les fouilles tchecoslovaques du Kultepe" (in Syria, 1927). (F. HR.)

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