BRIJNNOW, FRANZ FRIEDRICH ERNST (1821 1891), German astronomer, was born in Berlin on Nov. 18 1821. After graduating as Ph.D. at Berlin in 1843, he worked at the Berlin observatory, under J. F. Encke, contributing numerous important papers on the orbits of comets and minor planets to the Astronomische Nachrichten. In 1847 he was appointed direc tor of the Bilk observatory, near Dusseldorf, and in the follow ing year published the Memoire sur la comete elliptique de De Vico. In 1851 he succeeded J. G. Galle as first assistant at the Berlin observatory, and accepted in 1854 the post of director of the new observatory at Ann Arbor (Mich.) U.S.A. Here he pub lished, 1858-62, a journal entitled Astronomical Notices, while his tables of the minor planets Flora, Victoria and Iris were severally issued in 1857, 1859 and 1869. In 186o he went, as associate director of the observatory, to Albany (N.Y.) ; but re turned in 1861 to Michigan. In 1863 he returned to Germany; then, on the death of Sir W. R. Hamilton in 1865, he accepted the post of Andrews professor of astronomy in the university of Dublin and astronomer-royal of Ireland. His first undertaking at the Dublin observatory was the erection of an equatorial tele scope to carry the fine object-glass presented to the university by Sir James South; and on its completion he began an important series of researches on stellar parallax. The first, second and third parts of the Astronomical Observations and Researches made at Dunsink contain the results of these labours, and include discussions of the distances of the stars a Lyrae, a Draconis, Groombridge 183o, 85 Pegasi, and Bradley 3077, and of the plan etary nebula H. iv. 37. In 1874 he retired to Basle. He died at Heidelberg on Aug. 20 1891. His Lehrbuch der sphdrischen As tronomie was widely appreciated. In 1860 part i. was translated into English by Robert 1\Iain, the Radcliffe observer at Oxford ; Brunnow himself published an English version in 1865. A fifth edition of the original was published in 1881, and it was also translated into French, Russian, Italian and Spanish.