TRUSTS IN THE UNITED STATES Carnegie Institute of Pittsburgh.—This consists of a group of cultural and educational departments of the municipal type, library, concert hall, technical college, museum and art gallery. The foundation really dates from 1881 when Carnegie offered to provide a public library; this offer was accepted in 1886. The idea expanded until the institute was finally constituted as such in 1896. It has a capital of $28,000,000.
Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching (New York) .—This was founded originally in 1905 to provide pensions for teachers in the form of free gifts. The system was at first non-contributory, but after elaborate investigation, a new system was adopted by which colleges and teachers both con tribute on a properly calculated actuarial basis. The Foundation has undertaken inquiries in the field of education, and issued re ports. Its capital and reserves amount to nearly $30,000,000.
Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.—Founded in 1910 with a view to "the speedy abolition of international war between the so-called civilized nations," this has a capital of $10,000,000. It is divided into three sections concerned re spectively with "intercourse and education," "economics and his tory" and "international law." The endowment is very broad in its scope, being free to work in any way for the promotion of good feeling and understanding between the nations. Since the World War one important project has been a series of volumes on European economics in connection with the war and its after math. The Division of Economics and History of the Carnegie Endowment is responsible for the Economic and Social History of the World War, under the direction of Dr. James T. Shotwell and Divisional Editors in sixteen countries. An authoritative record is preserved of the displacement caused by the war in the whole structure of civilized society. Some forty war-time cabinet ministers and over two hundred specialists have contributed to its one hundred and fifty volumes. No such study had ever been made of the phenomena of war previously. This wealth of material is deposited in over seven hundred libraries throughout the world for the study of future generations.
All the above Foundations, except the Carnegie Corporation of New York and the United Kingdom Trust, have functional or local limitations. The two general trusts work largely on the same lines, seeking to promote adult education in the widest sense of the term, to make accessible to the public at large the cultural resources of the community, and especially to finance carefully devised pioneer experiments for which, without practical demon stration, state subsidies and private liberality cannot be expected.
See the Annual Reports issued by the various Trusts ; Manual of the Public Benefactions of A. Carnegie (1920). See also LIBRARIES.