Bill of variable length, with soft tip ; toes free without membrane ; hind toe well developed. Small 'Waders, inhabit ing sea-coast and damp localities inland ; run swiftly, gregarious except in breeding season ; nest a lined depression ; eggs 4, pyriform, greenish grey or buff or dull dark buff blotched or spotted with brown.
Adult summer. Above mottled chestnut and black, upper and under tail coverts white with black bars ; beneath chestnut with white edges. In winter, above brownish grey with faint dark shaft streaks, upper tail coverts all white ; beneath white, streaked brown on sides of head, throat and chest. Bill decurved, black. Legs and feet black. Wing a 12o-132. Tarsus 28-30. Bill 32-4t. Young : above brown, with white margins ; beneath white, buff on chest, streaks almost obsolete.
Breeds.—So far as is known, shores of E. Siberia, west to Taimyr Peninsula and Yenisei. Migrates ; occurs on passage on shores, inland lakes, and river banks of Continental Europe and British Isles south to Mediterranean and Islands, Canaries (occasional) and Asia to China. Winters in Africa from N.W. Africa and Egypt south to Cape and from S. Asia to Australia.
Tringa alpina alpina L. DUNLIN. Fr. Becasseau variable ; Ger. Alpenstrandkiufer ; Pal. Piovanello pancia nera ; Saved. Kfirrsnappa.
S 9 adult summer. Above black with broad chestnut margins, inner secondaries mostly white, centre of rump brown, sides white ; beneath, throat and chest white streaked black, breast black, abdomen white. Bill slightly decurved, black. Legs and feet black. In winter, above grey brown with faint dark shaft streaks ; beneath dull white faintly streaked pale brown on chest. Wing S 107-118, 9 110-121. Tarsus a 23-26, 9 24-27. Bill g 25-3o, 9 26-33. Young : above dark brown with narrow rufous margins, neck washed with buff; breast white striated brown.
Breeds.—Greenland, Spitzbergen, Iceland, Faroes, British Isles, Continental Europe from Denmark, Holland, and German Coast, and Russia from Moscow and Perm north to Arctic Coast ; Islands of Kolguev, Dolgoi, Waigatz, Nova Zembla. Migratory ; occurs on passage throughout Europe. Many winter in Britain and S.W. European Coasts ; also Mediterranean Basin ; and on the east side of Africa south to Mozambique, on the west side to Canaries and Madeira.
Birds from British Isles, Germany, Holland, and Denmark have been distinguished as "T. a. schinzi" Brehm by Schiiiler on account of darker russet markings on back and less black on breast than typical northern race, but the distinction seems untenable.
A doubtful race "T. a. pusilla" (Falk) is described as breeding from the Petchora River eastwards into Siberia. It is somewhat larger, especially in the bill. Wing averages longer than in typical form and in 9 reaches 125. Tarsus S 24-26, 9 25-29. Bill a 29-34, 9 30-35. This race occurs in winter in the Eastern Mediterranean but many come west at that season and it appears to be in British Isles as plentiful in winter as typical "alpina." Another race, lighter coloured in summer, " T. a. sakhalina " (Vieillot) breeds in N.E. Siberia and N. America. It is distinctly larger. Bill S 31-36, 9 (H.) and has occurred at Fair Isle and probably elsewhere in Europe.
Tringa minuta Leisler. LITTLE STINT. Ger. Zwergstrand laufer ; ZIr1. Gambecchio ; Swed. Smasnappa.
j 9 summer. Above black with broad chestnut margins and some white tips, inner primaries with white shafts, outer tail feathers smoky brown ; beneath white, chest greyish with chestnut and brown spots. Bill short, narrow, black. Legs and feet black. In winter : above grey brown with dark shaft streaks ; beneath white. Wing e 92-98, 4 96-101. Tarsus a 2o-21, 9 20-23. Bill j 16-19, 9 18-19.
Preeds.—Finmark (Porsanger Fiord), N. Russian tundras from Murmansk to Petchora, and on Nova Zembla, \Vaigatz, I)olgoi and Kolguev Islands ; also locally in N. Russia south to Govts. of Moscow, Jaroslav, Perm, and Uralsk ; and in W. Siberia. Migrates ; occurs on passage in Britain and Continental Europe to Mediterranean, and Asia south to Turkestan. Winters in S.W. Asia and Africa south to Cape. It often remains in winter quarters during our summer, but does not breed.
Tringa minutilla Vieillet. AMERICAN STINT.
d 9 Resemble "minuta" but legs slightly paler, more grey brown, breast somewhat more spotted and black centres of feathers of upper parts slightly more developed, while chestnut margins are narrower. In winter distinguished from " minuta " by dusky shaft-streaks on upper breast. Wing j Y 88-90. Tarsus 17-19. ]fill 16.5-19.
A North American species of rare occurrence in Europe. Recorded S.W. England four times.
Tringa temmincki Leisler. TEMMINCK's STINT. Ger.
Grauer Zwergstrandlaufer ; Gambecchio nano ; Swed. Mosnippa.
j 9 adult, summer. Above black and grey mottled, with rufous edges and a bronzy shade, rump uniform dark brown, outer tail feathers pure white, shaft of 1st primary only white ; beneath white, foreneck and chest greyish buff with dark brown streaks. Bill black, olive brown at base below. Legs and feet olive yellow to olive brown. In winter, above grey brown with dark streaks ; beneath white, foreneck and chest greyish brown. Wing j 97-too. Tarsus 17-19. Bill 16-18. Young: above more bronzy and less black than summer adult, with buff edges and no streaks on foreneck.
Breeds.—S. Norway Mountains (occasional), N. Norway to Finmark, Lapland, N. Finland, tundras of N. Russia south to about 6o` N., Islands of and ; and across N. Siberia. ; occurs on in British Isles (not common), and Continental Europe south to Mediterranean. Winters in extreme south of Europe, N.W. and Africa south to White Nile ; also S. Asia.
Tringa maculata VieillOt. PECTORAL SANDPIPER.
d adult. Above blackish brown, with chestnut on crown and reddish buff on remainder upper parts, secondaries with very narrow white ; central upper tail coverts black, outer white ; central tail feathers black brown, pointed and about 10 m.m. than the others, which have rounded tips ; behind eye an indistinct white patch ; beneath white, brownish on chest with black bases to feathers and dark shaft streaks. Bill black. and feet yellow brown. Tarsus Bill 25-29. are more chestnut ; chest reddish buff, streaked brown.
Breeds.—Arctic America and E. Siberia. An occasional visitor to British Isles.
Tringa acuminate (Horsfield). SIBERIAN PECTORAL SANDPIPER.
Adult resembles "maculata" but all tail feathers are pointed ; rather more chestnut on upper parts ; beneath white, chest rufous and with no shaft streaks but with spots. Bill brownish black. and feet brownish yellow. j y 125-131. Tarsus 6 (H.). : more chestnut above, throat white, chest reddish buff with white sides of foreneck streaked and behind eye a white patch.
Breeds.—E. Siberia. Of very rare occurrence in Britain (twice in Tringa bairdi (Coues). BAIRD'S SANDPIPER.
Is a miniature "maculata" in all ; two central pairs of tail feathers somewhat than the others, upper tail coverts chiefly black with brown only white at sides. Bill black. and feet slaty black. d' y 123-129. Tarsus 22-25. Bill 21-23.
Breeds.--Arctic America. Has occurred rarely in British Isles.
Tringa fusoicollis Vieillot. BoNAPARTE's SANDrIPER. Resembles "T. bairdi" but upper tail coverts all white with brown streaks, only occasionally a black feather present. Bill and black. and feet dusky 6 Y Tarsus 22-25. Bill 21-26. Breeds.—Arctic America. Has occurred at times in British Isles ; and once obtained Franz Joseph Land.
Tringa canutus canutus L. KNOT. Fr. Maubtl:che ; Ger. Islandischer Strandlitufer ; Ital. Piovanello ; Swett. Kustsniippa.
6 9 adult, summer. Above black, with red buff ; upper tail coverts white with black bars ; beneath chestnut, under tail coverts white with a few brown spots ; tail central feathers not In winter : above grey brown with faint dark shaft streaks ; beneath white barred on breast and flanks. Bill, legs and feet black. \\Ting 6 Y 158-172. Tarsus 28-33. Bill 28-34. have crescentic dark and white tips on upper parts.
Breeds.—Iceland (doubtful), Greenland, Taimyr Peninsula, New Siberian Islands. Migrates ; occurs on in Europe, chiefly west. Winters in British Isles, Holland, France, Sardinia, Sicily, NAV. Africa and Africa to Cape ; also S. Asia and Australia. Rare visitor to Madeira, and Azores.
The Greenland birds may to the American race "T. canutus rufa." Tringa maritima maritima BrOnniCh. PURPLE SAND PIPER. Fr. BLIcasseztu violet ; Ger. Seestrandlaufer ; Swed. Skarsnappa.
8 9 adult, summer. Above black with some chestnut tips and rump and upper tail coverts black, central tail feathers than lateral by about 9 m.m. ; beneath dull white spotted and streaked brown ; inner secondaries almost entirely white. In winter : above dark brown with purple ; beneath, throat and chest brown, remainder white, with centres on breast and flanks. Bill brownish black, yellowish at base. and feet brownish yellow. d 119-132, 9 Tarsus 21-25. Bill 26-35.