AN ECOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE IlEMIPTERA OF THE CRANBERRY LAKE REGION, NEW YORK For the purpose of this study it is proposed to use an ecological grouping based on the primitive forest conditions or forest cover of the region with particular recognition of the modification caused by the lumbering or cutting of the large conifers and part of the hardwoods, and the subsequent burning of certain cut-over tracts. These factors have operated to produce a very different combina tion of organisms, in part because of the different plant associa tions which have formed a succession for the forest cover, but largely owing to the evident killing out of certain members of the original fauna. The latter is probably due to the disappearance of the food plants concerned or in some cases no doubt to the actual elimination of the species in certain areas occasioned by the destruction of the 'vegetation and duff through fire.
While the boundaries of the groups are not in all cases well defined, and as each may carry a varied flora aside from the domi nant plant species, there is usually a rather definite limit for each. In any case the hemipterous fauna for each association is fairly well defined. It is true that certain species, which disregard all limitations of host plants may enter a number or even all of the communities, but this 'does not invalidate the general rule and in many cases the restrictions to certain host plants or to a special environment is very marked.
The Cranberry Lake Region (fig. 1) as here delimited includes the lake proper and adjacent tracts. The former, including bays and flows, has a maximum length of about nine miles. The total distance around the lake is approximately 160 miles. The altitude is about 1,485 feet above sea level.* The valleys, bogs, swamps, lakes, marshes, streams, hills and low mountains give considerable physiographical diversity within a small area.
The original forest cover (birch, beech, maple, spruce, pine, hemlock, balsam, larch, etc.) has been modified in most tracts by lumbering and fire (burns). The "burns" and cut-over areas are in various stages of rehabilitation and offer the most varied and most favorable breeding places for Hemiptera. The "plains," hogs, swamps, marshes, etc., present the usual combination of plant association. An excellent and detailed discussion of these, includ ing the biological conditions, has been published by Brayf in "The Development of the Vegetation of New York State." The collecting -regions mentioned in these pages are marked by the absenee of oak, sycamore, hickory, walnut, hackberry, elm and basswood.
Headquarters were established at the State Forest Camp on Barber Point, Cranberry Lake, about seven miles from Cranberry Village and some eight miles from Wanakena. The collections covered a diversity of locations and the paper is based on records of three summers, collections being made at odd times by Drake in 1917 and 1919 and the past summer (1920) by Osborn and Drake together.
For convenience the list of species follows the excellent cata logue by Van Duzee,* but in many cases the authors do not con sider the sequence of genera or species as representing the most probable lines of evolution of the groups or the natural affinities. No synonomy or specific bibliography has been included since these are so admirably covered by the above mentioned author. Only references to the more recent papers or to such as are especially desirable for the accommodation of readers of this paper are cited.