CONTRIBUTION TOWARD THE LIFE HISTORY OF GALEATUS PECKHAMI ASHMEAD This curious and interesting American insect was described by Ashmead (1387, p. 156) as Sphaerocysta peckharni from two speci mens collected near :Milwaukee, Wisconsin, by Prof. Geo. W. Peck ham. A number of years later Van Duzee (1889, p. 5) records the insect from an island in Muskoka Lake, Canada, and transfers it to the Genus Galeatus Stal, where the species correctly belongs. In regard to its habitat Van Duzee (1. c.) says: "Swept from low weeds — probably a dwarf vaccinium or a species of aralia, which were growing close together — among pines on a rocky island " (collected between July 25 and August 3, 1889).
Uhler* (1904, p. 362) greatly extends the range of G. peckhami and lists the insect from Las Vegas, Hot Springs, New Mexico (collected by Schwarz and Barber, August 3, at an altitude of about 6,770 feet). Bueno (1915, pp. 278 and 279) enumerates the species among the insects taken in beech drift of Lake Superior at Marquette, Michigan, in July by Mr. John I). Sherman, Jr. The latter lot contained thirty-two specimens, which seems to indi cate that the insect must have been migrating in considerable numbers. The species has recently been reported from Maine (Parshley, 1917, p. 55), New Ha.mpshire (Parshley, 1916, p. 105) and New York (Drake, 1918, p. 86). Dr. II. II. Knight has kindly sent me a few specimens from Duluth, Minnesota. In addition to most of these records Van Duzee (1917 b, p. 216) catalogues the insect from Manitoba and (1896, p. 265) also records the species from Japan.
During the past summer (1920) Dr. Osborn and the writer found the insect breeding in great numbers upon aster, Aster macrophyllus L., and boneset, Eupatorium sp. (fide Dr. II. P. Brown) on the summit of Crataegus Hill, Barber Point, during the last week of July. At this time all the nymphs had attained the mature state. A careful examination of the ventral surfaces of the leaves of the asters revealed the east-off skins of four different instars still clinging to the leaves. The skins of the last three instars were in almost perfect condition and the figures and descriptions of the nymphal instars have been made from these cast-off skins.
The eggs of Galeatus peckhami Ashm. are almost entirely inserted in the stem of the host plant, usually somewhat near the surface of the ground, upon which the insects are feeding.. They are generally placed singly (Plato 1 V, e) and in no definite order in the stems of the plants. Only a small port ion of the egg or the neck-like structure and cap protrudes from the plant. However, occasionally two or rarely three eggs are inserted in the same slit or egg puncture. Sometimes five or six or even a dozen eggs may be laid in rather close proximity to each other. They are deposited during the latter part of July, August and Septem ber. In proportion to the size of the abdomen the eggs are quite large and only a few fully formed ova can be contained within the body of the female at the same time. This probably accounts for the long period of egg-deposition. There is but a single genera tion a year in the Adirondacks and field observation indicates conclusively that eggs, which are laid during the latter part of the summer do not hatch until the following spring. Asters, in which eggs had been deposited in the stems in the field, were trans ferred to small pots and placed in the laboratory at Syracuse. Adult males and females were also carried to Syracuse on the host plants, but all died during the latter part of September and Octo ber. The plants were destroyed by mildew during November and December. The eggs, which had been deposited during July or later, failed to incubate in the laboratory, but seemed to have remained in a living state until they were destroyed by desiccation of the stems of the asters a few weeks after the plants had been killed by the mildew.
The egg (Plate IV, Fig. e) is slightly curved, from .7 to .S mm. long and about one-third as wide. The cephalic end is distinctly neck-shaped and closed by a round cap or lid. The color varies from brown to dark brown or black, usually considerably darker on the cephalic half and with a much lighter cap.