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Papers from the Department of Marine Biology, Volume 11 by Carnegie Institution of Washington 1917

3 Effect Of Temperature
3. Effect Of Temperature On The Reaction. ...

5 Effect Of Fat Solvent
5. Effect Of Fat-solvent Anesthetics. Saturation Of The Potato-juice Or Blood With Ether Or Chloroform Does Not Affect Its Power To Produce Light With Pyrogallol ± A Sam Ple Of Horseradish-root Extract Preserved 45 Days Under Ether Gave A Good Light When Mixed With Pyrogallol ± 6. Is The Oxidase ...

A Study Of Respiration
A Study Of Respiration In Alcyonaria. Although The Respiration Of Many Species Of Invertebrates Has Been Studied In Considerable Detail, The Only References To That Of Alcyonaria Which Have Come To The Attention Of The Writer Are Those Given By Montuori (1913), Who Studied Two Species, Alcyameum Pallidum And Gorgonia ...

Absence Of Oxygen
Absence Of Oxygen. The Effect Of The Lack Of Oxygen On Noctiluca Was Tested By Subjecting The Animals To An Atmosphere Of Bubbling Well-washed Hydrogen From A Kipp Generator. When Thus Treated, The Luminescence Gradually Grows Fainter For An Hour Until It Is Very Faint. If Air Is Now Admitted ...

Acids And Alkalies
Acids And Alkalies. The Effect Of Acids (hc1) And Alkalies (naoh) Can Be Seen By Adding 1 C.c. Of The Acid (or Alkali) Of A Definite Concentration To 1 C.c. Of A Glowing Mixture Of Photogenin And Photophelein. The Concentration Of The Acid Or Alkali In The Mixture Will Thus ...

Acids And Alkalies_2
Acids And Alkalies. For Ascertaining The Effects Of Acids On The Luminescence Of Nodiluca, Hydrochloric (a Lipoid Insoluble) And Benzoic (a Lipoid Soluble) Acids Were Used, The Solutions Being Made Up In A Neutral Artificial Sea-water, M/2(100 Naci+2.2 Kc1-1-2 Cac12-1-10 Mgc12), So As To Avoid The Disturbing Presence Of The ...

Analysis Of The Divisions
Analysis Of The Divisions Of The Starved Cassiopea. Various Determinations Made On The Different Parts Of The Body Show That The Water-content Is Practically Identical In All The Starved Cassiopeas. Here Also, As In The Case Of The Normal Animal, The Um Brella Gives A Slightly Higher Water Value, Owing ...

Anesthetics
Anesthetics. Anesthesia May Be Defined As A Temporary Inhibition Of Some Physio Logical Activity And Includes A Wide Range Of Processes Such As Cell Division, Responses To Stimuli Of Various Kinds, Light-production, Etc. Its Chief Characteristic Is That The Condition Is Reversible—that Is, That Normal Processes Are Resumed On Removal ...

Atresia Of The Esophagus
Atresia Of The Esophagus In The Embryo Of The Loggerhead Turtle (caretta Caretta): A Normal Developmental Condition. In A Series Of Embryos Of The Loggerhead Turtle Collected And Used Originally For A Study Of The History Of The Primordial Germ-cells, It Was Noticed That The Esophagus Was Solid For A ...

Bird Key
Bird Key. Bird Key, Which Is Considerably Smaller Than Loggerhead, Is Only About 500 Feet Long By 300 Feet Broad And Is Now A Government Bird Reservation For The Sooty And Noddy Terns. These Birds Nest On This Small Island During The Summer Months. During The Breeding-season For Many Years ...

Blenniida
Blenniida. Head 4.2; Depth 4.3. Dorsal Xii, 20; Anal 23. Head Slightly Longer Than Deep; Anterior Profile Vertical, Slightly Concave. Eye 3.25 In Head. Pecto Rals Reach To Vent Or Beyond In Male, Not Quite To Vent In Female. Ventrals 1.5 In Head. Upper Lip Of Male Large; Teeth Pectinate; ...

Bush And Long Keys
Bush And Long Keys. The General Map Of The Tortugas Shows That These Keys Lie Slightly West Of Garden Key; They Are Very Irregular And Are Merely Narrow Strips Of Sand And Ridges Of Broken Corals. During The Winter Season Of 1911-12 The Two Keys Were United By Land Connections ...

Calibration Of An Improved
Calibration Of An Improved Indicator Method For Use On Shipboard And In Poorly Equipped Laboratories. After The Excellent Work Of Sorensen And His Associates On The Indicator Method It Might Be Supposed That The Last Word Had Been Spoken On This Subject. But There Are Several Disadvantages In Sorensen's Method. ...

Carbon Dioxide Tension Of Sea Water
Carbon-dioxide Tension Of Sea-water. We Express Tension In Parts Per 10,000. If Sea-water Is Bottled It Undergoes Some Fermentation With Rise In Tension, Unless An Antiseptic Is Added. Krogh Supposed That The Addition Of 1 Gram Hgc12 Per Liter Caused The Tension To Rise 0.35. Krogh Found That The Co, ...

Cell Clusters Of The Pericardium
Cell-clusters Of The Pericardium. In View Of What Was Said Above, Regarding The Close Primary Relation Ship Between Mesenchyme, Endothelium, And Mesothelium, It Seemed Reasonable To Expect That Mesothelium Also Might To Some Extent Differentiate Hemoblasts, Possibly Leucoblasts. Careful Examination Of The Pericardium Reveals Patches Of Proliferating And Differentiating Mesothelial ...

Change Of Osmotic Pressure
Change Of Osmotic Pressure. Noctiluca Can Stand A Considerable Decrease In Osmotic Pressure With Out Having Its Luminous Response Affected, As Indicated In Table 1. We May Dilute The Sea-water With Fresh-water In Any Amount Down To A Pro Portion Of Half And Half, And The Animals Still Give A ...

Chemical Nature Of The
Chemical Nature Of The Gelatinous Substance Of Cassiopea. The Chemical Nature Of The Jelly-like Substance (reserve Substance) Of Various Forms Of Medusa Has Been Examined By Several Investigators, But So Far As I Am Aware Nothing Has Been Definitely Established As To The Chemical Nature Of This Puzzling Structure. Krukenberg ...

Climatic Conditions Of The
Climatic Conditions Of The Tortugas. While No Permanent Records Are Available From The Tortugas, The Writer Assumes That The Records From The Office Of The United States Weather Bureau At Key West, Only 68 Miles Distant, Will For This Pur Pose Be Applicable To The Climate Of The Tortugas. The ...

Co The Hydrogen Ion Concentration
The Hydrogen-ion Concentration, Co, Tension, And Co, Content Of Sea-water.* Since The Volume Of Water Changes With The Temperature, The Most Accurate Method Of Expressing The Results Of Water Analysis Is To Take The Kilogram Of Water As The Unit. The Older Method Was To Express Results In Grams Per ...

Color And Markings
Color And Markings. There Is Considerable Variation In The Body-color And Markings Of This Big Barracuda. In Life, Specimen No. 11 Was On The Upper Surface A Rich Dark Green, The Sides Silvery, The Belly Chalky-white. In The Mid-lateral Region The Green Sent Down Bars Into The Silvery Region, Which ...

Color And Size
Color And Size. The First Specimens Of Tropiometra Seen Appeared To Be Uniformly Dark Purple, Purplish-brown, Reddish-brown, Or Bright Brown, But A Closer Examination Showed That Uniform Coloring Was Very Rare. Almost Always A Longitudinal Dorsal Stripe On Each Arm, Or Transverse Bands Of More Or Less Width, Or Both, ...

Concentration Of Photogenin And
Concentration Of Photogenin And Photophelein In Cypridina. Even This Is A Low Estimate, As We Do Not Know What The Concentration Of The Photogenin Is In The Gland Itself. When We Compare The Amount Of Photogenin Which Can Be Detected By Light-production With The Amount Of Substances Detectable By Chem ...

Conclusions 1
Conclusions. 1. The Optimum Conditions Of Temperature, Volume Of Sea-water, Sur Face Exposure, And Concentration Of Eggs And Of Sperm Were Ascertained. 2. The Eggs And Sperm Used In These Experiments Were Immediately Removed From Freshly Collected Sea-urchins. 3. Three Species Of Sea-urchins Were Used, Toxopneustes And Hipponoe Of Shallow ...

Conditions Just Prior To
Conditions Just Prior To June 26. In Order To Account Properly For The Presence Of Certain Insects Found Upon Rebecca Shoal Light-station On June 26 It Is Desirable To Acquaint The Reader With The Conditions Obtaining There In The Period Just Preceding. From The Lighthouse Journal It Was Learned That ...

Content 0 Sea Wa Di
'1 Dv A D The Co, Content 0 Sea-wa Di • Tomoe Observed That Sea-water Is Alkaline To Litmus Or Rosolic Acid. He Added A Known Excess Of Normal To A Liter Of Sea-water, Boiled Off The Caught It In A Known Solution Of For De I I •i • ...

Correlation Of The Different
Correlation Of The Different Variations. These Observations And Experiments Furnished Unmistakable Evidence Of A High Correlation Of These Variants In All Three Sea-urchins. From Table 3 The Size Of Eggs And The Percentage Of Eggs With Jelly Envelopes May Be Compared; Also In Table 4 The Rate Of Membrane Formation ...

Desiccation And Extraction With
Desiccation And Extraction With Fat Solvents. The Experiments Recorded Herein Have Been Made During A Period Of Two Years On Several Different Species Of Firefly—the American Photuris Pennsylvanica And Photinus Pyralis, The Japanese Luciola Vitticollis And L. Parva, And The West Indian "cucullo," Pyrophorus Noctilucus And P. Havaniensis. All The ...

Desiccation And Extraction With
Desiccation And Extraction With Fat Solvents. Luminous Animals May Be Divided Into Two Classes—those In Which The Luminous Material Is Burnt Within The Living Cell (firefly, Fungi) And Those In Which It Is Secreted By The Cell Outside (many Worms, Crus Tacea, And Myriapods). As First Shown By Molish (8) ...

Distribution Of Photogen1n And
Distribution Of Photogen1n And Photophelein In The Firefly And Other Organisms. While Photogenin Is Found Only In The Luminous Gland-cells Of The Firefly, Photophelein Is Distributed Throughout The Body Of The Firefly. An Extract Of The Non-luminous Parts Of The Firefly Will Give Light With Photogenin, But Only If Tested ...

Distribution Of Photophelein And
Distribution Of Photophelein And Photogenin In Organisms. Certain Fundamental Facts For The Chemical Theory Of Light-production Appear When We Study The Distribution Of Photophelein And Photogenin: (i) In The Non-luminous Parts Of Cypridina; (n) In The Non-luminous Cypridina; (in) In Other Non-luminous Organisms; (iv) In Luminous Organisms. By A Careful, ...

Distribution Of Species Among
Distribution Of Species Among The Keys Of The Group. Only One Other Paper Previous To The Publication Of The Present One Has Dealt With The Ecology Of This Region, Viz, A Series Of Maps With Field Notes Collected By E. 0. Lansing In The Spring Of 1904, And Published By ...

Drawings Or Figures Of
Drawings Or Figures Of The Barracuda. The History Of The Big Barracuda Has Been Rather Fully Given In The Course Of This Paper, And Little Can Be Added Here. However, It May Not Be Without Interest To Give Some Few Points About Figures Of The Sphyrzena, Both European And American. ...

Effect Of Lack Of
Effect Of Lack Of Oxygen. Many Observers Have Shown That If Luminous Bacteria Are Suspended In Sea-water And The Oxygen Removed The Light Disappears And Again Returns When Oxygen Is Readmitted. Will The Light Reappear If The Cells Are In The Meantime Cytolyzed? I Have Made Many Attempts To Obtain ...

Effect Of Potassium Cyanide
Effect Of Potassium Cyanide.. As Is The Case With Other Luminous Forms, Kcn Has A Surprisingly Small Effect On The Light-production Of Luminous Bacteria As Compared With Its Effect In Supressing Certain Oxidations Of Many Animals. The Results Are Expressed In Table 19. In M/40 Kcn The Light Disappears In ...

Effect Of Time Interval
Effect Of Time Interval Between Separation Of Disks Into . Halves And Removal Of Sense-organs. In All The Experiments On Regeneration Involving Half-disks Which Retained Their Sense-organs It Was Noticeable That The Difference In Rate Of Regeneration From The Two Halves Was Most Marked During The First Day (see Figures ...

Electrical Stimulation
Electrical Stimulation. The Juice Of Cavernularia Filtered Through Filter Paper Does Not Re Spond To The Strongest Interrupted Induced Shocks. The Living Colony, However, Responds Readily. When A Galvanic Current Is Passed Through One Of The Excised Polyps Mounted Between Non-polarizable Electrodes, A Flash Of Light Occurs On The Make ...

Electricity
Electricity. When A Constant Current Is Passed Through A Mass Of Noctilucas, The Animals Flash Brightly At The Make, Continue Glowing During The Passage Of The Current, And Cease To Glow At The Break, Giving No Flash, But Sometimes They Stay Glowing After The Break, And In This Case The ...

Embryological
Embryological. In 1877 Babuchin (4), In 1888 Ewart (49), And In 1894 Engelman (39) Worked Out The Origin Of The Electric Organs Of Torpedo And The Mormyricke, Then Known As The Pseudoelectric Fishes, Showing That, In General, Electric Organs Have Arisen By The Modification Of Certain Striated Muscle-cells. In Torpedo ...

Embryonic History Of The
Embryonic History Of The Germ-cells Of The Loggerhead Turtle (caretta Caretta). The Wide Discrepancies In The Published Accounts Of The Origin And Early History Of The Germ-cells In Vertebrates Provided The Stimulus For The Inception And Prosecution Of This Investigation. Thus Wal Deyer (1870) Described In The 4-day Chick Embryo ...

Emydidje
Emydidje. Peendemys Palustris (gmelin). A Series Of 10 Very Interesting Examples From Guanica Lake, Porto Rico. On First Examination They Appeared To Represent Two Distinct Species, And It Appears That Two Very Great Extremes Of Color Variation Occur In Porto Rico. Dr. Stejneger Pointed Out In 1902 That "there Are ...

Endothelial Hemogenesis In Intraembryonic
Endothelial Hemogenesis In Intraembryonic Mesenchyma. Search For Evidence In Support Of This Hypothesis Is Abundantly Rewarded. Figure 13 Represents A Blood-channel Which Has Just Formed Out Of The Pericerebral Mesenchyma. The Lumen Of The Channel Still Contains Strands Of Dissolving Mesenchyma. The Four Cells Present Represent Four Different Stages In ...

Evidence That Odonata And
Evidence That Odonata And Lepidoptera Migrate To Tortugas. Mention Has Just Been Made Of A Dragon-fly Which Visited Rebecca Shoal Station. At Times These Insects Are Numerous At Tortugas, Both On Loggerhead And East Keys, Where Vegetation Is Abundant. In July 1914 Within An Hour I Captured A Score At ...

Experiments
Experiments. Studies Of Recent Years Have Shown The Important Influence Of Hydroxyl And Hydrogen Ions Upon The Rate Of Nerve-conduction. The Free Hydroxyl Ion Is A Stimulant Through A Considerable Range Of Con Centration, But The Free Hydrogen Ion Is A Depressant, Excepting That In Very Weak Concentration It Acts ...

Experiments With Anesthetics
Experiments With Anesthetics. In The Previously Described Experiments It Was Shown That The Active Half Of A Medusa Disk Prepared As Shown In Figures 3 And 5 Has A Higher Rate Of Regeneration Than Does The Inactive Half Of The Same Specimen. While This Point Is Clearly Shown In All ...

Experiments With Entire Disks
Experiments With Entire Disks. When The Rates Of Regeneration Of A Series Of Active And Inactive Entire Disks Is Compared It Is Found That In About 75 Per Cent Of All The Experi Ments The Regeneration Is Most Rapid In The Active Specimens. In The Remkining Disks The Amount Regenerated ...

Extraction With Aqueous Solvents
Extraction With Aqueous Solvents And Effect Of Oxygen. If The Luminous Tissues Of The Firefly Are Extracted With Water A Solu Tion Which Still Gives Light On Filtration Through Filter Paper Is Obtained. The Light Lasts A Certain Time And Then Disappears. If The Dried Powdered Luminous Tissues Of The ...

Family Leodicidal
Family Leodicidal Lumbrinerels Eingulata N. Sv. An Unusually Small Representative Of This Genus, The Largest Individuals Being Not Over 40 Mm. Long With A Prostomial Width Of 1 Mm. The Type After Preservation Was 37 Mm. Long And Had 98 Somites. The Prostomium When Extended Is Broadly Rounded, Its Length ...

Family Phyllodocida
Family Phyllodocida. Phyllodoce Tortugie A. Sp. Body Of Type 120 Mm. Long, Of More Than 200 Somites. Prostomium 1.5 Mm. In Diameter, Rather Longer Than Broad (plate 2, Fig. 4). Anterior And Lateral Margins Of Prostomium Rounded, But Posterior Half Of Lateral Mar Gin Nearly Straight. Posterior Margin Deeply Incised, ...

Family Polynoida
Family Polynoida. Lepideaotas Laqurnue A. Sp. Length Of Type 14 Mm.; Greatest Breadth At End Of Anterior Third 4 Mm.; Body Tapering From Here In Both Directions, But The Head Is Broader Than The Pnidium• The Head (plate 1, Fig. 4) Is Oval With The Transverse Diameter The Longer, With ...

Family Sabellidal
Family Sabellidal Sabella Alba A. Sp. Length 45 Mm., Of Which The Gills Represent 10 Mm. Body Very Slender, Not More Than 2 Mm. In Breadth At The Collar. Gills 17 Pairs, Colorless Except For A Fine Longitudinal Dusting Of Pigment Along The Bases Of Some Of The Rachises; Bases ...

Family Syllidae
Family Syllidae. Odontosyllis Octodentata N. Sp. A Relatively Large Species, Approximately 40 Mm. Long And 2.5 Mm. In Width. The Prostomium (plate 1, Fig. 1) Is Broader Than Long, With The Anterior Margin Broader Than The Posterior, The Lateral Angles Rounded. The Posterior Margin Has A Slight Depression Which Is ...

Feeding And Growth Of
Feeding And Growth Of Young While In Paternal Mouth. At The Time Of Hatching, I. E., Bursting Of The Shell, The Young Measure About 45 Mm. Over All, But When They Leave The Mouth And Begin An Independent Existence They Are About 85 To 100 Mm. Long. An Early Egg, ...

Felichthys Felis Oral Gestation
Oral Gestation In The Gaff-topsail Catfish, Felichthys Felis. In A Previous Paper (gudger, 1916) I Have Given In Some Detail The Story Of How I Came To Rediscover The Habit Of Oral Gestation In The Gaff-topsail Catfish, Felichthys Felis (plate I, Figure 1). In Order To Give The Facts Contained ...

Food And Feeding
Food And Feeding. This Fish Is As Strictly Carnivorous As The Shark, Although Hardly So Indiscriminate In Its Choice Of Flesh. So Far As My Observations And Dissections Go, It Is Wholly A Piscivore, Feeding Entirely Upon Other Fishes. It Is Not Meant To Convey The Idea That It Will ...

Food And Feeding
Food And Feeding. From The Peculiar Dental Armature Of The Gaff-topsail (the Teeth Being Confined To Villiform Bands On The Vomer And Palatines And To Supra-pharyngeal And Infra-pharyngeal Pads, And Hence Adapted For Crushing Rather Than Biting, Tearing, Or Holding), One Would Conjecture That It Is Not A Feeder On ...

Fossil Forms
Fossil Forms. Our Knowledge Of The Sphynenidte Far Antedates The Historic Period; Even Aristotle's Mention Of Them Is Comparatively Recent. In The Cre Taceous Seas Which Covered Kansas And The Adjacent Parts Of The Great Plains Region, And In The Bays And Shallow Sounds Along The North Carolina Coast, There ...

Garden Key
Garden Key. This Island Is The Second Largest In The Group And To A Considerable Extent Is Occupied By That Antiquated, Massive Old Brick Structure, Fort Jefferson (plate 4). Almost All The History And Tradition Of This Remote Group Of Islands Centers About Garden Key And The Fort. As A ...

General Character Of Light
General Character Of Light And Of Luminous Glands. Cypridina Hilgendorfii Is A Strongly Negatively Heliotropic Ostracod Best Obtained At Night By Lowering Into The Water Fish Heads, On Which The Animals Feed. It May Be Caught The Year Round, But Is Most Abundant During August And September In Sagami Bay, ...

General Characteristics Of Light Production
General Characteristics Of Light-production. The Structure Of The Luminous Organs And The Habits Of This Form Have Been Well Described By Ishikawa (31) And Sasaki (32). The Organs Are Found On The Tip Of The Ventral Arms (3 In Number), On The Eyeball (5 In Number), And Over The Ventral ...

General Characters Of The
General Characters Of The Animal And Of The Photogenic Material Panceri (24), Working With Pennatula Phosphorea, Has Given Us The Best Account Of Phosphorescence Among The Pennatulids. He De Scribes The Light As Coming From Eight Bands Of Cells On The Outer Wall Of The Stomach And Continued Into Buccal ...

General Conclusions
General Conclusions. We May Be Very Certain That In All Luminous Animals A Definite Sub Stance Undergoes Chemical Change, And If Free Oxygen Is Present Light Is Produced. This Oxidizable Substance May Conveniently Be Called Photogenin. In Some Forms It Is Oxidized Within The Cell, In Others Without. In Some ...

General Sketch Of The
General Sketch Of The Vegetation Of The Tortugas. On Ecologic And Geologic Grounds The Florida Keys Have Been Divided Into Four Groups By Small (1) The Upper Sand Keys, Which Are Really Detached Portions Of The Coastal Peninsula And Support A Sand-dune And Hammock Flora Closely Related To The Mainland. ...

General Structure
General Structure. The Mass Of Muscle In The Midline Of The Abdomen By Which The Spine (postanal Telson) Is Moved Consists Of Muscle-fibers Varying Greatly In Diameter (fig. 1) And Held Together By A Small Amount Of Delicate Wide-meshed Connective Tissue. The Nuclei Are Scattered Apparently Promiscuously Through The Diameter ...

General Structure_2
General Structure. A Cross-section Of The Tubular Heart Of Limulus Shows The Vast Majority Of The Fibers Cut Longitudinally. They Are Collected Into Larger And Smaller Bundles, Arranged Approximately Radially, Tangen Tially, And Circularly, Crossing Each Other At Angles Of All Degrees; A Very Few Scattered Cross-cut Fibers May Appear ...

Geologic Formation
Geologic Formation. The Geological Formation And The History Of South Florida And The Adjacent Regions Have Been Investigated Thoroughly By T. Wayland Vaughan, Of The United States Geological Survey, And In One Paper He Discusses Particularly The Tortugas Atoll' From This Paper The Writer Quotes Largely As To The Geology ...

Germ Cell Origin In Invertebrates
Germ-cell. Origin In Invertebrates. The Clearest And Most Striking Case Of Early Germ-cell Differentiation Among The Invertebrates Is That Of Ascaris Megalocephala, In Which Boveri (1892) Traced The Germ-cells Through The Cleavage Back To The 2-cell Stage. The Conspicuous Differential Feature Of This Cell At The 2-cell Stage (and To ...

Germ Cell Origin In Vertebrates
Germ-cell Origin In Vertebrates. The Detailed And Critical Study Of The Origin Of The Germ-cells In Vertebrates May Be Said To Have Begun With The Observations Of Hoffman (1893) On Certain Birds (including Gallinula Chloropus, Sterna Paradisea, And Hcemotopus Ostralegus), Which Disclosed Primordial Germ Cells In The Entoderm And Splanchnic ...