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Papers from the Department of Marine Biology, Volume 11 by Carnegie Institution of Washington 1917

Properties Of Photogenin And
Properties Of Photogenin And Photophelein. As To The Chemical Nature Of Photogenin And Photophelein, Nothing Definite Is Known, Except That It Is Not A Fat Or Fat-like Substance. The Photophelein Is Much The More Stable Substance And Can Be Preserved, Until Attacked By Bacteria, Or With Chloroform For Over 6 ...

Pybogallol 2 Substances Taking
2. Substances Taking The Place Of Oxidase, Pybogallol, And 1402. Among The Group (2), A Silver Sol Protected By Protein So As To Be Fairly Concentrated Gave A Good Light. Concentrated Pt Sol And Au Sol Also Gave Light. Colloidal And Copper Oxide Gave Nega Tive Results. The Following Salts ...

Reactions To Certain Chemicals
Reactions To Certain Chemicals. Although No Experiments Were Made To Test The Reactions To Chemi Cals, It May Be Worth While To Record The Observations Made In Other Connections. Indifference To The Amount Of In The Water Was Noticeable, Particularly In View Of The Sensitiveness Of Torres Strait Comatulids To ...

Reactions To Light
Reactions To Light. The Remarkable Habitat Of Tropiometra In Buccoo Bay Naturally Suggested That In Its Reactions To Light It Would Be Positively Photo Tactic. A Tank 6 Feet Long, A Foot Wide, And 8 Inches Deep, Having The Bottom Covered With Broken Coral And Stones, Was Used For The ...

Reactions To Salinity
Reactions To Salinity. Experiments To Determine Whether Tropiometra Is Sensitive To Changes In The Salinity Of The Water In Which It Lives Gave Very Inter Esting Results. Two Individuals Were Placed In An Aquarium Con Taining 5 Liters Of Ordinary Sea-water And Two Specimens Of Similar Size And Appearance Were ...

Reactions To Temperature
Reactions To Temperature. While It Was Not Feasible To Produce Really Low Temperatures, Water In The Tank Fell To 22° C. During The Night. At This Temperature Tropiometra Showed No Signs Of Discomfort Or Stimulation. When The Water Was Gradually Raised To 33° Or 34°, Responses To Mechanical Stimulation Were ...

Records Of All Stations
Records Of All Stations And Of A Tank Of Sea-water. Table 4 Gives The Determinations Of The Surface Water At Station A (fig. 4) On The Eastern Side Of Loggerhead Key For The Month Of July 1917, And Table 5 Gives Similar Data Of A Tank Of Sea-water 4 By ...

Relation Between Area Of
Relation Between Area Of Tissue Enervated By A Single Sense-organ And Rate Of Pulsation. Eimer (1874) Made The Observation That As The Area Of Tissue Ener Vated By A Single Sense-organ Was Progressively Decreased There Was A Corresponding Decline In The Rate Of Pulsation. He States That The De Cline ...

Relation Between Death Temperature
Relation Between Death Temperature And Rate Of Metabolism. Column 7 Of The Table Gives The Temperatures Found To Be Fatal To The Different Species On An Exposure Of 1 Hour. When Compared Upon This Basis The Species Studied Fall Into Several Groups; 2 Of Them Succumb At 34.5° C.; Another ...

Relation Of Oxygen Tension
Relation Of Oxygen Tension And Activity Of The Nervous System To Metabolism In Cassiopea.* Henze (1910a) Observed That Sea-anemones Use Less Oxygen When Less Is Present In The Sea-water, But Interpreted This As Due To The Time Required For Diffusion Into The Animal. That Is To Say, He Supposed That ...

Response Of Injured Cells
Response Of Injured Cells. If A Number Of Noctilucas Are Punctured With A Needle, Causing The Cells To Collapse, And Are Then Subjected To An Interrupted Current, They Respond Just As Uninjured Cells Do. Such Punctured And Collapsed Cells Likewise Give A Normal Response When Stimulated Mechanically—i. E., By Pressure ...

Results Applied To Oceanography
Results Applied To Oceanography And Measurement Of Respiration-rate Of Marine Organisms. All Of The P. Determinations Were Made With The Hydrogen Electrode, But At The Same Time The Indicator Method Was Calibrated So That The Results May Be Duplicated By This More Convenient Method. The Indicators Used Were Mostly Selected ...

Sand Or Hospital Key
Sand Or Hospital Key. Stretching Eastward From Garden Key And Separated From Each Other By Almost Equal Distances Are Sand, Middle, And East Keys. All Three Are Small And Only The Easternmost One, East Key, Supports Any Real Covering Of Vegetation. Sand Key, Which Is Also Said To Have Been ...

Significance For Bioluminescence
Significance For Bioluminescence. The Reader Has Doubtless Already Noticed The Similarity Of The Pyro Reaction And The Luciferin-luciferase Reaction Of Dubois. Just As Dubois Supposed Luciferin To Be Oxidized By Luci Ferase, So We Actually Find Oxidized By Peroxidase. We Now Know That Luciferin (photophelein) Is Not Oxidized By Luci ...

Size
Size. The Big Barracuda Justifies Its Colloquial Name By Growing To Great Size. My Largest Specimen Was 4 Feet 7 Inches Long And Weighed 38 Pounds. This Is The Largest Specimen Recorded From The Lagoon At Tortugas. However, One Day I Saw, Under The Wharf-house At Garden Key, A Specimen ...

Size Of Eggs And
Size Of Eggs And The Number Incubated. The Eggs, While Enormously Large, Show Considerable Variation In Size, Running From 15 To 25 Mm. In Diameter. Heretofore, However, Sufficient Measurements Have Not Been Made To Enable One To Say With Any Definiteness What Is The Size Of The Average Egg Of ...

Size Of Mouth Cavity
Size Of Mouth Cavity. While This, Of Course, Varies With The Size Of The Fish, It Is Always Large, Since The Head Of This Fish Is Much Larger In Proportion To The Size Of The Body Than Is Generally The Case In Teleosts. This May Be Easily Seen By Turning ...

Size Of Young And
Size Of Young And Number Carried. It Is To Be Regretted That No Such Full Data Can Be Given For Larvae As For Eggs Carried By The Gaff-topsail Paterfamilias. Unfortunately But Few Lots Of Larvae Were Taken, And These Larvae Were Rarely Killed At The Time Of Capture, But Were ...

Special Ecology
Special Ecology. Seasonal Differences.—as Might Be Expected From The Data Presented Under "climate," The Conditions Are Fairly Uniform. The General Appearance Of The Islands Is The Same At All Seasons Of The Year. Of Course During The Winter Months And Early Spring, After The Heavy Rains In September To December, ...

Structural
Structural The General Structure Of The Organs In Torpedo Had Been Described In 1678 By Lorenzini (70), And A Detailed Account Was Published In 1835 By John Hunter (es), But The Anatomy Of The Electric Organs In General Was Not Given Much Consideration By Investigators Until The Discovery, By Bilharz, ...

Studies On Oxidative Chemiluminescent
Studies On Oxidative Chemiluminescent Reactions With Substances Of Definite Composition. Since The Researches Of Radziszewski In 1877 (u) And 1880 (35) On Lophin And Various Oils, Alcohols, And Aldehydes, We Have Come To Rec Ognize An Ever-increasing Number Of Substances Which Will Luminesce Under Appropriate Conditions At Temperatures Approaching Those ...

Studies On The Physiology
Studies On The Physiology Of The Nervous System Of Cassiopea Xamachana. In This Paper Are Gathered The Results Of Several Distinct Lines Of Experimentation, All Of Which Have This In Common—that They Deal With Some Phase Of The Physiology Of The Nervous System Of Cassiopea And Represent Portions Of A ...

Study Of An Embryo
Study Of An Embryo 9.5 Millimeters In Length. The Head Of This Embryo Was Sectioned Serially And Transversely And Reconstructed With 2 Mm. Wax At A Magnification Of 500 (plate R). Some Of The Eye-muscles Of This Little Embryo Are Already Beginning To Show A Change, Although No Definite Electric ...

Study Of An Embryo
Study Of An Embryo 20 Millimeters In Length. The Head Of The 20 Mm. Embryo Was Sectioned Serially And Trans Versely And Reconstructed In 1 Mm. Wax At A Magnification Of 500. This Embryo Was So Well Preserved That A Very Careful Study Has Been Made Of It (plates Ii ...

Syngnathid4e
Syngnathid4e. Corythrolehthys Maenads Sp. Nov. Plate 2, Lg. 3. Rings 18+33; Dorsal 19, On 1+4 Rings; Pectoral 12; Caudal 10; Anal 2. Head 9. Eye 5. Body 1.5 In Tail. Cranial Ridges Strong, Median Keel On Snout To Middle Of Eye; Ridge On Occiput High, Notched In Front And Behind. ...

Systematic Position
Systematic Position. Comparison Of The Comatulids Taken At Tobago With A Considerable Series Of Specimens From Several Stations On The Brazilian Coast, South Of The Amazon, Shows That They Are Unquestionably Identical. For This Brazilian Species, Mr. A. H. Clark Has Revived An Old Name Of Gay's, Pieta, Regarding It ...

Technique
Technique. The First Three Are Matters Of Direct Observation; The Last Two Require A Word Of Explanation. For I Have Found That Such Matters Of Detail Are Significant In These Studies. The Eggs Were Shaken And Several Fields Were Oounted, Totaling 100 To 200 Or More Eggs. At Least Two ...

Technique Of The Experiments
Technique Of The Experiments And Some Results Of Tions That Apply Equally To All Experiments. The Natural Habitat Of Cassiopea Is In Shallow Lagoons, Usually In Areas Where Mangroves Are Abundant, Where The Water Is Daily Subjected To Marked Fluctuations In Temperature, And Where The Salinity Is Most Affected By ...

Teiidal
Teiidal Ameiva End (cope). Six From Utuado, Porto Rico, Some Showing The Granules Extending Forward To The Second Chin-shield. In One An Accessory Scale Is Interpolated Between The Preparietals And In Contact With The Parietal. One From The Arecibo River Near The 70-kilometer Post, On June 14. One From A ...

Temperature
Temperature. Appears At 52° To 54°, And Returns On Cooling, So That We May Regard This As The Inhibition Temperature And Something Above 70°, Depending On The Concentration, As The Destruction Temperature. These Results Are In Good Agreement With Those Of Lund. The Time Necessary To Destroy Photophelein At 100° ...

The Barracuda Dangerous To
The Barracuda Dangerous To Man. All The Various Recitals Above Will Lead The Reader To Ask If This Fish Is Not Dangerous To Man. The Answer Is That In Southern Florida It Is More Feared Than The Shark. If The Reader Will Now Turn To Figures 7, 8, 9, And ...

The Breeding Season
The Breeding Season. The Limits For Egg-laying By The Gaff-topsail At Beaufort Can Not Be Set Very Narrowly, But An Attempt Will Be Made To Indicate When Males With Eggs May Be Taken. This Research Was Initiated The First Week In August 1906, But Only Females Long Spent Were Taken. ...

The Chemiluminescence Of Pyrogallol
The Chemiluminescence Of Pyrogallol It Has Been Known For A Long Time That Pyrogallol Takes Up Oxygen From The Air In Presence Of Alkali And Is Converted Into Brown Oxidation Products Of Unknown Composition. The Depth Of Brown Coloration (and Consequently The Extent Of Oxidation) Depends On The Concentration Of ...

The Chemistry Of Light Production
The Chemistry Of Light-production In Luminous Organisms The Literature On The Subject Of Animal Phosphorescence Or Biolum Inescence Or Biophotogenesis Is So Voluminous That No Attempt Can Be Made In The Present Article To Record A Complete List. A Fairly Com Plete Bibliography Will Be Found In Mangold's Article, "die ...

The Migration Of The
The Migration Of The The Migratory Powers Of Musca Domestica Were Clearly Demonstrated By The Occurrence Of Specimens At Rebecca Shoal. On My Arrival At The Station, June 26, I Found 6 House-flies; 2 More Were Taken On The Following Day. As Previously Explained, There Was No Possible Breeding Place ...

The Origin Of The
The Origin Of The Electric Organs In Scopus Guttatus. Living Organisms, Aside From Expending Energy In The Growth, Differ Entiation, And Reproduction Of Their Bodies And In Secreting Many Sub Stances Useful In The Preservation Of Their Lives, May Also Release Energy In The Form Of Motion, Electricity, Heat, And ...

The Origin Of The
The Origin Of The Habit Of Oral Gestation. The Causes Leading To The Practice Of Buccal Incubation Are Plainly Set Forth In The Preceding Section; The Eggs Must Be Guarded In A Nest Or Carried In The Mouth, Or Else The Fish Would Soon Become Extinct. The Gaff-topsail Has Chosen ...

The Relation Of Muscular
The Relation Of Muscular Activity To The Rate Of Metabolic Processes In Cassiopea. (1) The Relation Of Muscular Activity To The Rate Of Regeneration Has Been Considered In The Section Dealing With The Regeneration Experi Ments And Will Be Here Taken Up Only In Making Comparison With The Results Obtained ...

Toxic Effects Due To
Toxic Effects Due To High Temperature. The Experiments Cited Below Appear To Indicate That Death From High Temperature May Be Due To The Accumulation Of Acid In The Tissues. Reef Corals From Tortugas, Florida, Were Kept At A Constant Tem Perature In Warm Ocean-water For 60 Minutes In A Thermostat, ...

Toxopneustes
Toxopneustes. With The Volume Of Sea-water And The Concentration Of Sperm Con Stant, And With Increasing Numbers Of Eggs, A Concentration Was Finally Reached In Which The Rate Of Membrane Formation, Rate Of Cleavage, And Total Cleavage Was Considerably Reduced. In Experiment 7/5 This Injurious Concentration Was 1,084 Eggs In ...

Toxopneustes_2
Toxopneustes. The Total Cleavage Is Dependent Upon The Kind Of Male As Well As The Kind Of Female, Just As We Have Observed In The Case Of The Fertilization Membrane. For Example, 5 Samples Of The Eggs Of A Given Female Were Fertilized By 5 Different Males; The Percentage That ...

Use Of The Barracuda
Use Of The Barracuda As Food And Poisoning Resulting Therefrom. There Is A Long-standing Prejudice Against The Use Of Sphyrcena As Food. Salviani, The Roman Physician And Student Of Fishes, Says In His Book Published At Rome In 1554, That "at Rome They Are Justly Held To Be Common Or ...

Variation In Membrane Formation
Variation In Membrane Formation. In Order To Determine The Normal Variability In The Rate Of Fertiliza Tion-membrane Formation, It Was Important To Ascertain The Degree Of Variability Due To Differences In Different Samples Of Sperm And That Due To Differences In Different Batches Of Eggs. A Number Of The Experi ...

Younger Embryos From 9
Younger Embryos; From 9 To 6 Days. The 9-day Embryo (figs. 1 And 2, Plate 5) Differs From The 10-day Embryo Only In The Relative Abundance Of The Germ-cells At Different Levels Of The Migration Route; The Germ-cells Are Relatively Less Abundant In The Higher Levels And In The Gonads. ...

Youngest Embryos From 2
Youngest Embryos; From 2 To 5 Days. Towards The End Of The Second Day Of Incubation, When 5 Somites Are Formed, The Primordial Germ-cells Are Just Becoming Segregated Within The Entoderm Of The Area Pelllucida. The Cells Now Occur In Two Bilateral Cords, More Or Less Oval In Transection. These ...

With Special Reference To
Hemopoiesis In The Mongoose Embryo, With Special Reference To The Activity Of The Lium, Including That Of The Yolk-sac. In Several Recent Papers Dealing With Hemopoietic Phenomena In Turtle (7) And In Pig Embryos (s And 9) I Described Appearances On The Basis Of Which I Maintained A Contributive Role ...

With Special Reference To_2
Migration Of Insects To Rebecca Shoal Station And The Tortugas Islands, With Special Reference To Mosquitoes And Flies. For The Purpose Of Determining Whether Mosquitoes Can, Either By Their Own Powers Of Flight Or With The Aid Of Favorable Winds, Migrate Across The Sea For Considerable Distances, The Writer Spent ...