Physicochemical Reactions as Indicators of Cosmic Phenomena

water, factors, experiment, experiments and chemical

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There are grounds for assuming that certain physical factors may distort the structure of water without changing its chemical composition or its normal physical state. A change in the properties of water that does not involve any deviation from its normal state (temperature, pressure, etc.), nor the slightest change in its chemical composition is known as activation. The properties of water that depend upon its structure are readily distri buted by the action of cosmic factors. Indeed, it was established that structural changes of water, and consequently of its finer properties, require very little energy.

In order to obtain statistical confirmation of cosmic influences Prof. Piccardi developed an experimental technique which may be repeatedly and universally replicated. The following conditions are required: 1. The possibility of stopping or weakening the action of cosmic factors with the aid of a metal screen covering the apparatus in which any accurately recorded reaction takes place.

2. The possibility of modifying the structure of water such as its acti vation. Water with modified structure will behave differently under the influence of cosmic factors than water with the usual structure.

The phenomenon under investigation can be thoroughly examined if numerous paired experiments are performed (under the metal screen and in activated water). The rate of precipitation of any chemical substance in the water can be recorded.

The chemical experiments are carried out while maintaining the follow ing paired conditions: Condition No. 1 Condition No. 2 Experiment P. Ordinary water subjected to the usual cosmic factors.

Experiment F. Ordinary water subjected to the usual cosmic factors.

Experiment D. Ordinary water subjected to the usual cosmic factors Ordinary water, subjected to modified cosmic factors.

Activated water subjected to the usual cosmic factors.

Activated water subjected to modified cosmic factors.

In Piccardi's experiments a small, known amount of certain bismuth compounds was precipitated. The experiment was recorded continuously, since post-experimental calculations fail to indicate the kinetics of the system.

Since 1951 this kind of experiment has been performed in Florence, several times a day at the same time; the total number has already ex ceeded 250,000.

The results obtained are being studied by Dr. Becker of the Fraunhofer Institute in Florence, by Prof. Burkard of Graz University, by Prof. Berg of Cologne University (died in 1959), Dr. Mozetti of the Geographic Obser vatory at Trieste, engineer C. Capel-Boute of Brussels University, Doctor Meyer of Tubingen University and by Prof. Piccardi and his assistants.

It was found that experiment F was sensitive to solar flares and magnetic storms; however, experiment D depended upon the intensity of solar activity as determined by the Wolf number,* and therefore the recorded differences are of no fundamental significance (Figure 1). Experiment P also seemed to be connected with the solar activity, but this has not been confirmed as yet. It has been experimentally established that electro magnetic waves of certain wavelengths affect chemical experiments. A direct correlation exists between experiment D and the Wolf number (Figure 2).

However, certain divergent results were recorded in the course of a year in experiment D. The lowest minimum usually occurred in spring in the middle of March, when no changes were recorded in the Wolf number. Therefore, experiment D indicates its "independence" of solar activity.

The year-to-year variation of experiment D is cycloidal rather than sinusoidal. Taking into account the rotation of the Earth around the Sun, and the movement of the Sun toward the Hercules constellation, a varying helicoid was obtained, representing the movement of the Earth in the Galaxy (Figures 3, 4, 5). This movement is highly variable with respect to both direction and speed.

In March, the Earth moves in its orbit around the Sun at a maximum velocity of 45 km/sec in the equatorial plane, approxi mately toward the center of the Galaxy.

In September, the Earth moves at its minimum velocity of 24 km/sec, in a direction almost perpendicular to that in March.

It is questionable whether these changes occur without affecting sensitive reactions on the Earth. The hypothesis advanced by Prof. Piccardi in 1954 em phasizes precisely these possible physical consequences of the Earth's movement in space, and suggests the asymmetry between the northern and southern hemi spheres which was fully demonstrated by numerous experiments. Some experi ments to this effect were performed in conjunction with the program of the Inter national Geophysical Year in both hemi spheres, at Brussels, Tubingen, Jungfrau joch, Vienna, Geneva, Trieste, Florence, Bari (Castellana Grotta), Libreville, Leopoldville, Fort-Dauphin (Madagascar), and on Kerguelen Island (Figure 6). Successful experiments were carried out at Sapporo and at Kumamoto (Japan), on Roi Baudouin Land (Antarctic), and on New Amsterdam Island. The recordings made at different points on our planet confirm the asymmetry mentioned above. The values of experiment F'in the southern hemisphere are significantly lower than in the northern hemisphere, diminishing progressively toward the south.

Thus, Piccardi's hypothesis has prac tical value since it makes possible the forecasting of new and important details of cosmic factors.

Prof. Piccardi summarized his work as follows: 1. The correlation of cosmic phenomena with those on Earth are of interest not only in astrophysics and geophysics, but also in chemistry and physics.

2. The correlation of these phenomena can be investigated by studies of certain chemical reactions. In the future, this will make it possible to perform experiments of an unlimited diversity under a variety of conditions, since chemistry and physics have at their disposal innumerable systems sensitive to cosmic factors.

3. The suitability of chemical experiments has already been proved. They have helped to establish beyond doubt the effects of solar activity, solar flares, magnetic storms, etc. Moreover, they shed light on hitherto unknown phenomena, such as cycloidal changes with a minimum in March.

4. The pronounced effects of cosmic factors cannot be limited to inorganic colloids; they must equally affect the colloids of living organisms. Therefore, biologists and physicians should keep abreast of studies in cosmic activities.

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