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A Treatise on Roads and Pavements (1903)

Sheet Asphalt
Sheet Asphalt Pavements A Sheet Or Monolithic Asphalt Pavement Consists Primarily Of (1) A Wearing Coat 1 1/2 To 2 Inches Thick Composed Of Asphaltic Paving Cement Mixed With Sand; (2) A Binder Course Composed Of Broken Stone And Asphalt Cement; And (3) A Foundation Of Hydraulic Cement Concrete Or ...

Shrinkage In Rolling
Shrinkage In Rolling. Before Beginning To Spread The Layers Of Stone, It Is Necessary To Inquire As To The Amount The Crushed Stone Will Shrink In Rolling. The Shrinkage Has An Impor Tant Bearing Upon The Thickness And Cost Of The Finished Road; But The Amount Of Shrinkage Is Often ...

Sizes Of Stone
Sizes Of Stone. The Size Of Stone Used For Road Metal Depends Upon The Hardness And Toughness Of The Stone And Upon The Weight Of The Traffic. The Harder And Tougher The Material, The Smaller It May Be Broken Without Danger Of Its Crushing Or Shat Tering Under The Load ...

Special Assessments Pavementeconomics
Special Assessments - Pavement Economics. The Proportion Of The Cost Of A Pavement Paid By The Private Property Is Usually Collected As A Special Assessment, Which Has Been Defined As "a Compulsory Contribution Paid Once And For All To Defray The Cost Of A Special Improvement To Property, Undertaken In ...

Specifications For Laying
Specifications For Laying Below Are The Specifica Tions Employed For Asphalt Block Pavements On Carriage Ways, In The City Of Washington.* Road-bed. The Space Over Which The Pavement Is To Be Laid Hav Ing Been Excavated To The Proper Depth Below The Surface Of The Pave Ment When Completed, Any ...

Spreading The Stone
Spreading The Stone. The Stone Is Usually Hauled From The Crusher To The Road In Wagons Or Carts, Dumped Upon The Roadway, And Spread By Forks Or Rakes. This Practice Is Objec Tionable, Since The Coarse And Fine Fragments Become Separated In The Process. Producing A Layer Of Unequal Density ...

Stone Block Pavement
Stone-block Pavement. The Earliest Pavements Of Ancient Times Consisted Of Irregular Dressed Blocks Of Stone More Or Less Accurately Fitted Together. The Form And Size Of The Blocks Have Varied Greatly From Time To Time, A Fact Which Has Given Rise To Different Classes Of Pavementi. A Few Of These ...

Stone Sidewalks
Stone Sidewalks. One Of The Earliest Methods Of Pav Ing Foot-ways Was To Cover Them With Natural Stone Flagging, And Such Walks Are Still Very Common Where Flagstones Of Suitable Size May Be Readily Obtained. If Hard And Smooth And Well Laid, Nat Ural Stone Slabs Make A Fairly Durable ...

Street Drainage
Street Drainage. The Thorough Drainage Of A Street Involves Four Elements: (1) The Surface Drainage, (2) The Gutters, (3) The Catch Basins, And (4) The Underdrainage. They Will Be Considered In The Reverse, Order. Subdrainage. The Underdrainage Of A Street Is The First Step Toward Paving It. Without Thorough Subdrainage ...

Street Grades
Street Grades. The Fixing Of Street Grades Is One Of The Most Important Functions Of Municipal Engineering, Since The Grade System Of The Streets Is The Foundation Of All Municipal Engi Neering Matters. The Grades Should Be Established Before The Sewer System Is Planned; And If They Are Established Before ...

Street Pavements
Street Pavements. Good Pavements Are Necessary To The Highest Develop Ment Of The Commercial, Sanitary And Esthetic Life Of The City. The Large Proportion Of People Now Dwelling In Cities Makes The Subject Of Pavements An Important One At Present; And The Fact That The Urban Population Is Increasing Much ...

Street Plan
Street Plan. Since An Engineer Is Occasionally Called Upon To Plan A City, And Often To Lay Out Additions To Cities And Vil Lages, The Various Street Plans For The City Will Be Considered. In Plan Ning The Streets Of A City Three Objects Should Be Kept In Mind ; ...

Street Trees
Street Trees. Itis Always Desirable Both For The Shade And For The Appearance, And Usually Possible, To Have The Streets, At Least Those Devoted To Residences, Lined With Trees On Each Side. Although Trees In The Streets Have An Important Sanitary And Aesthetic Value, Opinions Differ Regarding The Proper Responsibility ...

Super Elevation
Super-elevation. If A Man Attempts To Ride A Bicycle Around A Curve, The Rider And The Wheel Must Lean Inward To Bal Ance The Centrifugal Force; And If The Surface Of The Track Is Level Transversely, The Wheel Will Not Be Perpendicular To The Surface And Will Tend To Run ...

Super Elevation Track
Super-elevation Track. On The Curves The Outside Of The Track Should Be Higher Than The Inside, To Neutralize The Effect Of Centrifugal Force. According To The Principles Of Mechanics, The Force Required To Deflect A Body From A Rectilinear Path Is W . Rg • In Which W Is The ...

Surface Drainage Streetdrainage
Surface Drainage - Street Drainage. The Drainage Of The Surface Of The Pavement Is Provided For By Making The Center Of The Pavement Higher Than The Sides. The Principle Governing The Amount Of Crown For Pavements Is Somewhat Different From That Of Earth, Gravel, Or Macadam Roads. First, A Hard, ...

Tar Macadam
Tar Macadam. Broken Stone With A Tar Binder Has Been Used For Road Purposes In A Comparatively Small Way In England For Twenty Or Thirty Years Past; And The Experience Of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, With This Form Of Pavement Has Lately Attracted Considerable Attention In This Country. In A General ...

Tearing Up Pavements
Tearing Up Pavements. The Most Serious Cause Of The Destruction Of Pavements Is The Frequency With Which They Are Torn Up For The Introduction Or Repair Of Underground Pipes, Conduits, Etc. No Pavement Has Been Introduced, And Probably None Ever Will Be, Which Is Not Seriously Injured By Being Torn ...

Testing The Brick
Testing The Brick. It Is Important To Have A Definite Method Of Testing The Qualities Of Any Artificial Material, Since Then All Parties May Know Exactly The Grade Called For, And Since The Results Obtained By Different Observers With Different Materials May Be Compared. This Is Particularly True Of Brick, ...

The Asphalt
The Asphalt. Asphalt Exists In Various Forms Over Widely Distributed Parts Of The Earth, And Has Been In Somewhat Common Use For Different Purposes Since The Dawn Of History; Con Sequently The Terms Employed To Designate It Have Been Varied, And Recently There Has Been No Little Confusion In The ...

The Blocks
The Blocks. The Blocks Should Be Made Of Sound And Durable Stone, Free From Weather Marks And Seams, And Should Be Of Uniform Hardness, Since The Pavement Will Wear Unevenly If Hard And Soft Blocks Are Laid Together. For The Appearance Of The Pavement, It Is Desirable That Blocks Of ...

The Clay
The Clay. Three Distinct Classes Of Clay Are Employed In The Manufacture Of Paving Brick: Surface Clays, Impure Fire Clays, And Shales. Surface Clays Are Almost Exclusively Used For The Manufacture Of Building Bricks; But Are Not Ordinarily Suitable For Making Paving Bricks, Since It Is Practically Impossible To Burn ...

The Foundation
The Foundation - Since The Sheet-asphalt Wearing Surface Has No Power In Itself To Act As A Bridge, It Is Essential That It Be Placed Upon A Firm Unyielding Foundation; And Consequently It Is Nearly Always Placed Upon A Bed Of Hydraulic Cement Concrete. Prepared As Described In Art. 2. ...

The Sand
The Sand - The Asphaltic Cement Is Mixed With Inert Mineral Matter, Mainly Sand, To Form The Wearing Coat. The Min Eral Matter Constitutes About 90 Per Cent Of The Wearing Coat, And Its Character And Composition Has An Important Effect Upon The Quantity And Durability Of The Pavement. The ...

The Surface Track
The Surface - Track. The Surface Should Be Formed Of A Soil That Packs Well And Does Not "cup," I. E., Curl Up When Sprinkled. Clay, Loam, Gumbo, Sandy Loam, And Muck Are All Good. If The Natural Soil Is Clear Sand, It Should Be Covered With A Top Dressing ...

The Wearing Coat
The Wearing Coat - The Asphaltic Cement And The Sand (or More Properly, The Mineral Matter) Are Mixed To Form The Wear Ing Coat. Enough Cement Should Be Used To Fill The Voids In The Compacted Sand, As Otherwise The Mineral Matter Will Not Be Held Together With The Maximum ...

The Wood Varieties
The Wood Varieties. Both The Hard And The Soft Varieties Of Wood Have Been Employed For Making Paving Blocks. The Hard Woods Are Used Without Preservative Treatment, And The Soft Ones Are Used Both With And Without Preserving (see § 844). In The United States, Cedar And Cypress, On Account ...

Theory Of Concrete
Theory Of Concrete. To Secure The Greatest Strength At The Least Cost, The Proportions Of The Concrete Should Be So Adjusted That The Voids In The Sand Will Be Filled With Cement Paste, And The Voids In The Gravel Or Broken Stone Will Be Filled With Ce Ment Mortar. The ...

Tractive Resistance
Tractive Resistance. The Resistance To Traction Of A Vehicle On Aroad Consists Of Three Independent Elements: Axle Friction, Rolling Resistance, And Grade Resistance. Table 3 Shows The Results Obtained By Mr. T. I. Mairs At The Missouri Agricultural Experiment Station,* With Three Different Sized Wheels. The 50-inch Represents 44-inch Front ...

U S A D
U. S. A. D. Co-efficient Is Obtained As Follows: Subtract 4,000 From The Weight Of The Abraded Material Larger Than 11 Inches, And Divide The Difference By 10. If No Wear Takes Place, The Co-efficient Will Be 100; And If There Is 20 Per Cent Of Detritus Smaller Than 11 ...

Warrens Method
Warren's Method. Upon The Subsoil Is Placed A 4-inch Layer Of Broken Stone Which Is Thoroughly Rolled. On This Stone Foundation Is Spread A Coat Of Thin Asphaltic Cement, Which Enters The Interstices Of The Stone Holding Its Fragments Together And Forming A Surface With Which The Wearing Coat Will ...

Whinerys Method
Whinery's Method. The Foundation May Be Either Broken Stone Or Hydraulic Cement Concrete, Depending Upon The Relative Cost Of The Two And Also Upon The Supporting Power Of The Subsoil. The Wearing Coat Consists Of A Layer Of Crushed Stone The Voids Of Which Are Filled With A Mixture Similar ...

Width
Width. Under This Head Will Be Considered Primarily The Width Of The Right Of Way, The Width Of The Wheelway, Or Improved Portion, Being Considered Later, In The Chapter Relating To The Par Ticular Road Surface. The Legal Width Of Right Of Way Varies Greatly In Different States. In An ...

Width Of Pavement
Width Of Pavement. Itis Wise To Make The Streets Of Residence Districts Of Liberal Width For Sanitary And Aesthetic Reasons; And Also Because The Future Of The Street Can Not Be Cer Tainly Foreseen,—the Residence Street May Become A Business Street, Or An Unfrequented Street A Thoroughfare. However, It Is ...

Width Of Streets
Width Of Streets. The Width Of City Streets Is Impor Tant On Account Of Its Influence Upon The Ease With Which Traffic May Be Conducted And Also Because Of Its Effect Upon The Health And Comfort Of The People By Determining The Amount Of Light And Air Which May Penetrate ...

Width Of Wheelway
Width Of Wheelway. The Width Of The Right Of Way Varies Greatly, But Is Usually Between 40 And 66 Feet (see § 88). With A 66-foot Right Of Way It Is Customary To Reserve About 6 Feet Outside Of The Ditch On Each Side For A Foot-way, And Grade Up ...

Work Of Maintenance Broken Stone
Work Of Maintenance Broken-stone Road. Under This Head Will Be Dis Cussed The Several Kinds Of Work Involved In Taking Care Of A Crushed Stone Road And In Making Repairs. Clean Coarse Sand Gives The Best Results. 3. The Third Method Of Preventing Raveling Consists In Incorporating Blue Gravel Or ...

Work Of Maintenance Gravel
Work Of Maintenance - Gravel. When A Gravel Road Is First Thrown Open To Traffic, It Should Be Carefully Watched And All Incip Ient Ruts And Depressions Should Be Filled As Soon As Formed, Either By Raking In Gravel From The Sides Of The Depression Or By Adding Fresh Gravel—in ...