In Fig. 30 is shown a sectional view of both a wood and an iron smooth plane, with the various pieces numbered, and in Fig. 31 are shown some of these same pieces separately with the same numbers attached to each. The names of the various parts are as follows: No. 1 is the "plane iron," and should he made of steel, well tempered and ground. It should be throughout of the same thickness.
No. 2 is the "plane iron cap," also of steel, the purpose of which is to protect the plane iron.
No. :3 is the "plane iron screw," which fastens the plane iron cap to the plane iron.
No. 4 is the "cap" (or "cap iron"), which holds the plane iron in place, and it is fastened to the "frog" by means of the "cap screw," No. 5.
No. 6 is the "frog," which acts as a support for the plane irons, and which is fastened to the body of the plane by the "frog screw," No. 10.
No. 7 is the "Y" adjustment, the end of which fits into an opening in the plane iron cap, and makes possible the close adjustment of the position of the plane iron. The adjustment is made by means of the brass "adjusting nut," No. 8.
No. 9 is the "lateral adjustment," by means of which the plane iron can be shifted very slightly sideways in the plane, if necessary, so as to bring it parallel with the edge of the bottom of the plane, where it passes through the slot.
No. 11 is the "handle," which is fastened to the.bottorn of the plane by the "handle screw," No. 15, and by the "handle bolt and nut," No. 13.
No. 12 is the "knob," fastened to the bottom by the "knob bolt and nut," No. 14.
No. 16 is the "bottom" of the iron plane, while No. 18 is the "bottom" of the wood plane.
No. 17 is called the "top casting" and occurs only on the wood bottom plane Nails. In general, nails are of two kinds, namely, cut nails and wire nails, the difference between the two kinds being in the material and the method of manufacture.
Cut Nails. The cut nails, also called plate nails, are stamped out of a flat iron plate, in alternate, slightly wedge-shaped pieces, and the head is afterward formed on the large end of each piece. The cut nails arc made in three classes, according to finish, and are called, respectively, "common," "casing," and "finish" nails. The nails known as "finishing nails," however, are far too rough for fine finished work. The length of the nail is regulated according to the which formerly had reference to the weight, but which now is purely arbitrary. Thus a three penny nail is 14 inches long; four
penny, 1 inches; five penny, 11 inches; six penny, 2 inches; seven penny, 2 inches; eight penny, 22 inches; nine penny, 21 inches; ten penny, 3 inches; twelve penny, 31 inches; sixteen penny, 31 inches; twenty penny, 4 inches; thirty penny, 41 inches; forty penny, 5 inches; fifty penny, 51 inches; and sixty penny, 6 inches. The speci fications which have just been given for cut nails also hold good for wire nails.
Wire Nails. Wire nails are rapidly replacing the cut nails in general use. They are now very nearly the same price and are very much stronger, so that they do not buckle up when driven into hard wood, and they are not nearly so liable to split the wood on account of their cylinder-shaped shaft, which is the same size through out its entire length. They are made from wire, which is cut in lengths by machinery and pointed and headed. They can also be ribbed or barbed, if desired, which gives them a stronger hold on the wood. They are made with various kinds of heads, some being large and flat, so that the nail can be easily withdrawn, while others are very slightly larger than the shaft of the nail and can be made almost invisible in the finished work.
For framing, large nails should be used, from 4 to 6 inches in length. For the rougher exterior and interior finish, such as sheathing and rough flooring, nails about 3 inches long are suitable, while for the finer inside finish smaller nails from 21 inches down to 11 inches should be used. Roofing should be put on with special galvanized or copper nails so as not to rust out.
Screws. Screws are now used in building work to a much greater extent than was formerly the custom, largely on account of their decreased cost. They have the advantage over nails, as they do not split the wood, and they can be easily withdrawn when desired, without injuring the work materially. There are a great many different kinds of wood screws, which vary as to the shape of the head, the size of the shaft, and the length. They are made in about the same lengths as those given above for nails, and with both round and flat heads.
Screws can be had in iron, steel, copper, bronze, and brass. They are also made with the heads silver- and gold-plated, or lacquered to match finishing hardware.