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# Cyclopedia of Architecture, Carpentry and Building : A General Reference Work (1912)

000 X S25 372
X 7 X 10 X 55,000 X S.25 = 372,900 Inch-pounds. If The Beam Were Actually Stressed With This Moment, The Total Com Pression In The Concrete Would Equal 372,900 ÷ S.25 = 45,200 Pounds. From Equation 13 We Have: Solving For C', C' = 45,200 20.00s = 2,205 Pounds, ...

400 720 X 30
720 X 30 X .0000065 X2,400,000 X 6,529 //i — - 881. 2,495,951 — D) For Center = 1s3 — 127.2 = 55.8 (y — D) For Abutments = 0 — 127.2 = — 127.2. The Moment Produced By The Assumed Change Of Temperature 30 Degrees, Is Therefore As Follows: ...

A 0121 X12
A = .0121 X 12 X 4 = .5sos Square Inch. This Equals .0484 Square Inch Per Inch Of Width. Since A 1-inch Square Bar Has An Area Of .25 Square Inch, We May Provide The Rein Forcemeat By Using 4--inch Square Bars Spaced 0484 = 5.17 Inches, Or, Say, ...

Bending Or Trussing Bars
Bending Or Trussing Bars 369. Bending Details. The Full Bending Details Of The Bars Should Be Made Before The Reinforcing Steel Is Ordered For Any Rein Forced-concrete Work That Is To Be Constructed. It Has Been The Common Practice For Contractors To Make These Details, If They Are Made; And ...

Bitumen 120
Bitumen 120. Varieties. One Of The Groups Of Mineral Substances Com Posed Of Different Hydro-carbons, Which Are Widely Scattered Through Out The World, Is Known As Bitumen. There Is A Great Variety Of Forms In Which Bitumen Is Found, Ranging From Volatile Liquids To Thick Semi-fluids And Solids. These Are ...

Bonding Old And New
Bonding Old And New Concrete The Place And Manner Of Making Breaks Or Joints In Floor Construction At The End Of A Day's Work, Is A Subject That Has Been Much Discussed By Engineers And Construction Companies. But There Has Not Been Any General Agreement Yet As To The Best ...

Brick 20
Brick 20. Definition And Characteristics. The Term Brick Is Usually Applied To The Product Resulting From Burning Moulded Prisms Of Clay In A Kiln At A High Temperature. Common Brick Is Not Extensively Used In Engineering Structures, Except In The Construction Of Sewers And The Lining Of Tunnels. Brick Is ...

Brick Masonry
Brick Masonry Many Of The Terms Employed In Stone Masonry, And Of The Directions For Properly Doing The Work, Are Equally Applicable To Brick Masonry, Aria Therefore Will Not Be Here Repeated. The Follow Ing Sections Will Be Devoted To Those Terms And Specifications Which Arc Applicable Only To Brick ...

Bridge Piers And Abutments
Bridge Piers And Abutments 230. Placing Of Piers. The Outline Design Of A Long Bridge Which Requires Several Spans, Involves Many Considerations: (1) If The River Is Navigable, At Least One Deep And Wide Channel Must Be Left For Navigation. The Placing Of Piers, The Clear Height Of The Spans ...

Broken Stone 81
Broken Stone 81. This Term Ordinarily Signifies The Product Of A Stone Crusher Or The Result Of Hand-breaking By Hammering Large Blocks Of Stone; But The Term May Also Include Gravel, Described Below. 82. Classification Of Stones. The Best, Hardest, And Most Durable Broken Stone Comes From The Trap Rocks, ...

Building Stone 12
Building Stone 12. Limestone. Carbonate Of Lime Forms The Principal In Gredient Of Limestone. A Pure Limestone Should Consist Only Of Carbonate Of Lime. However, None Of Our Natural Stones Are Chemi Cally Pure, But All Contain A Greater Or Less Amount Of Foreign Material. To These Impurities Are Due ...

Cement Testing 44
Cement Testing 44. The Thorough Testing Of Cement, As It Is Done For The Largest Public Works, Should Properly Be Done In A Professional Testing Laboratory. A Textbook Of Several Hundred Pages Has Recently Been Written On This Subject. The Ultimate Analysis And Testing Of Cement, Both Chemically And Physically, ...

Cementing Materials 3s
Cementing Materials 3s. The Principal Cementing Materials Are Common Lime, Hydraulic Lime, Pozzuolana, Natural Cement, And Portland Cement. There Are A Few Other Varieties, But Their Use Is So Limited That They Need Not Be Considered Here. 39. Common Lime. This Is Produced By Burning "limestone" Whose Chief Ingredient Is ...

Centers For Arches 362
Centers For Arches 362. The Centers For Stone, Plain Concrete, And Reinforced Concrete Arches Are Constructed In A Similar Manner. A Reinforced Concrete Arch Of The Same Span And Designed For The Same Loading, Will Not Be So Heavy As A Plain Concrete Or Stone Arch, And The Centers Need ...

Clay Puddle
Clay Puddle Clay Puddle Consists Of Clay And Sand-made Into A Plastic Mass With Water. It Is Used Principally To Fill Cofferdams, And For Making Embankments And Reservoirs Water-tight. 167. Quality Of Clay. Opaque Clays With A Dull Earthy Fracture, Of An Argillaceous Nature, Which Are Greasy To The Touch, ...

Cofferdams And Caissons 218
Cofferdams And Caissons 218. Cofferdams. Foundations Are Frequently Constructed Through Shallow Bodies Of Water By Means Of Cofferdams. These Are Essentially Walls Of Clay Confined Between Wooden Frames, The Walls Being Sufficiently Impervious To Water So That All Water And Mud Within The Walled Space May Be Pumped Out And ...

Columns 309
Columns 309. Methods Of Reinforcement. The Laws Of Mechanics, As Well As Experimental Testing On Full-sized Columns Of Various Structural Materials, Show That Very Short Columns, Or Even Those Whose Length Is Ten Times Their Smallest Diameter, Will Fail By Crushing Or Shearing Of The Material. If The Columns Are ...

Complete Solution Of Numerical
Complete Solution Of Numerical Problem Elastic Arch 431. Dimensions Of Arch. We Shall Apply The Above Prin Ciples To The Design Of A Segmental Arch Having A Span Of 60 Feet And A Rise Of 15 Feet. To Find The Radius For The Intrados Which Will Fulfil These Conditions, We ...

Concrete
Concrete Concrete Is Composed Of A Mixture Of Cement, Sand, And Crushed Stone Or Gravel, Which, After Being Mixed With Water, Soon Sets And Obtains A Hardness And Strength Equal To That Of A Good Building Stone. These Properties, Together With Its Adaptability To Mono Lithic Construction, Combined With Its ...

Concrete 159
Concrete 159. Rubble Concrete Includes Any Class Of Concrete In Which Large Stones Arc Placed. The Chief Use Of This Concrete Is In Con Structing Clams, Lock Walls, Breakwaters, Retaining Walls, And Bridge Piers. The Cost Of Rubble Concrete In Large Masses Should Be Less Than That Of Ordinary Concrete, ...

Concrete Building Blocks 29
Concrete Building Blocks 29. The Growth Of The Concrete Block Industry Has Been Rapid. The Blocks Are Taking The Place Of Wood, Brick, And Stone For Ordi Nary Wall Construction. They Are Strong, Durable, And Cheap. The Blocks Are Made At A Factory Or On The Site Of The Work ...

Concrete Curb 252
Concrete Curb 252. The Curb Is Usually Built Just In Advance Of The Sidewalk. The Foundation Is Prepared Similarly To That Of Walks. The Curb Is Divided Into Lengths Similar To That Of The Walk; And The Joints Be Tween The Blocks, And Also Between The Walk And The Curb, ...

Concrete Walks 247
Concrete Walks 247. Drainage Of Foundations. The Excavation Should Be Made To A Sufficient Depth So As To Get Below The Frost Line. The Ground Should He Tamped Thoroughly, And The Excavation Filled With Cinders, Broken Stone, Gravel, Or Brickbat, To Within Four Inches (or Whatever Thickness Of Slab Is ...

Constructive Features Of Masonry
Constructive Features Of Masonry Arches 402. Definitions Of Terms Pertaining To Arch Masonry. Tilt Following Are Definitions Of Technical Terms Frequently Used In Con Nection With The Subject Of Arch Masonry (see Fig. 21s): Abutment—the Masonry Which Supports An Arch At Either End, And Which Is So Designed That It ...

Culverts 235
Culverts 235. The Term Culvert Is Usually Applied To A Small Waterway Which Passes Under An Embankment Of A Railroad Or A Highway. The Term Is Confined To Waterways Which Are So Small That Standard Plans Are Prepared Which Depend Only On The Assumed Area Of Waterway That Is Required. ...

Culverts 307
Culverts 307. Box Culverts. The Permanency Of Concrete, And Par Ticularly Reinforced Concrete, Has Caused Its Adoption In The Construc Tion Of Culverts Of All Dimensions, From A Cross-sectional Area Of A Very Few Square Feet, To That Of An Arch Which Might Be More Properly Classified Under The More ...

Depositing Concrete Under Water
Depositing Concrete Under Water 163. Methods. In Depositing Concrete Under Water, Some Means Must He Taken To Prevent The Separation Of The Materials While Passing Through The Water. The Three Principal Methods Are As Follows: (1) By Means Of Closed Buckets; (2) By Means Of Cloth Or Paper Bags; (3) ...

Elastic Arches 421
Elastic Arches 421. Technical Meaning. All Of The Previous Demonstrations In Arches Have Been Made On The Basis That The Arch Is Made Up Of Voussoirs, Which Are Acted On Only By Compressive Forces. The Demonstration Would Still Remain The Same, Even If The Arches Were Monolithic Rather Than Composed ...

Finishing Surfaces Of Concrete
Finishing Surfaces Of Concrete 316. Imperfections. To Give A Satisfactory Finish To Exposed Surfaces Of Concrete Is A Rather Difficult Problem. Usually, When The Forms Are Taken Down, The Surface Of The Concrete Shows The Joints, Knots, And Grain Of The Wood. It Has More The Appearance Of A Piece ...

Fire Protection 127
Fire Protection 127. The Various Tests Which Have Been Conducted—including The Involuntary Tests Made As The Result Of Fires—have Shown That The Fire-resisting Qualities Of Concrete, And Even Resistance To A Com Bination Of Fire And Water, Are Greater Than Those Of Any Other Known Type Of Building Construction. Fires ...

Forms 351
Forms 351. General Requirements. In :lethal Construction Work, The Cost Of Forms Is A Large Item Of Expense And Offers The Best Field For The Exercise Of Ingenuity. For Economical Work, The Design Should Consist Of A Repetition Of Identical Units; And The Forms Should Be So Devised That It ...

Foundations 169
Foundations 169. It Would Be Impossible To Over-emphasize The Importance Of Foundations, Because The Very Fact That The Foundations Are Under Ground And Out Of Sight Detracts From The Consideration That Many Will Give To The Subject. It Is Probably True That A Yielding Of The Subsoil Is Responsible For ...

General Theory Of Flexure
General Theory Of Flexure 256. Introduction. The Theory Of Flexure In Reinforced Concrete Is Exceptionally Complicated. A Multitude Of Simple Rules, Formula?, And Tables For Designing Reinforced-concrete Work Have Been Proposed, Some Of Which Are Sufficiently Accurate And Applicable Under Certain Conditions. But The Effect Of These Various Conditions Should ...

Hinged Arch Ribs 444
Hinged Arch Ribs 444. General Principles. The Construction Of Hinged Arches Of Reinforced Concrete Is Very Rare, But Is Not Unknown, And Will Probably Come Into Greater Use When Their Advantages Are More Fully Realized. We May Consider That Structurally They Consist Of Curved Ribs Which Have Hinges At Each ...

Machinery For Concrete Work
Machinery For Concrete Work 331. Concrete Plant. No General Rule Can Be Given For Laying Out A Plant For Concrete Work. Every Job Is Generally A Problem By Itself, And Usually Requires A Careful Analysis To Secure The Most Economical Results. Since It Is Much Easier And Cheaper To Handle ...

Methods Of Mixing 133
Methods Of Mixing 133. The Two Methods Used In Mixing Concrete Are By Hand And By Machinery. Good Concrete May He Made By Either Method Concrete Mixed By Either Method Should He Carefully Watched By A Good Foreman. If A Large Quantity Of Concrete Is Required, It Is Cheaper To ...

Mortar
Mortar Si. The Term Mortar Is Usually Applied To The Mixture Of Sand And Cementing Material Which Is Placed Between The Large Stones Of A Stone Structure, Although The Term Might Also Be Properly Applied To The Matrix Of The Concrete In Which Broken Stone Is Embedded. The Relieves The ...

Natural Stone And Its
Natural Stone And Its Characteristics 1. From The Constructor's Standpoint, Any Stone Is Good Which Will Fulfil Certain Desired Characteristics. These Various Charac Teristics Are Not Found Combined In The Highest Degree In Any One Kind Of Stone. It Is Essential To Learn To What Extent These Various Desirable Characteristics ...

Pile Foundations 190
Pile Foundations 190. Piles. The Term Pile Is Generally Understood To Be A Stick Of Timber Driven In The Ground To Support A Structure. This Stick Of Timber Is Generally Thought Of As The Body Of A Small Tree; But Timber In Many Shapes Is Used For Piling. Sheet Piling, ...

Portland Cement 66
Portland Cement 66. Definition. This Term Is Applied To The Finely Pulverized Product Resulting From The Calcination To Incipient Fusion Of An Intimate Mixture Of Properly Proportioned Argillaceous And Cal Careous Materials, To Which No Addition Greater Than 3 Per Cent Has Been Made Subsequent To Calcination. 67. Specific Gravity. ...