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# Cyclopedia of Architecture, Carpentry and Building : A General Reference Work (1912)

000 For Railway Bridges
For Railway Bridges: = 10,000 Pounds Per Square Inch, Net Area. F, = 8,000 Pounds Per Square Inch, Gross Area, Reduced For Ratio Of Length To Width Of Flange. = 8,000 Pounds Per Square Inch Net Area. The Practice Regarding The Reduction Of Allowable Compression Stress Varies Somewhat; But The ...

2x 14 X X
2x 14 X X 7.3s= 64.6 2x 1.93x 1.44 = 5.5 14x X .19 = 1.0 71.1 Fig. 276. ÷ 17.86 = 4.00 = Distance Of Center Of Gravity From Bottom Of Plate. Moment Of Inertia Of Bottom Chord. As The Bottom Chord Is Subject Only To Tension, It Is ...

72 Steel Construction
72 Steel Construction Loads. The Different Cuts Shown (figs. 65, 66, And 67) Give Reasonable Limits. In Any Case Of Special Loading, However, Or Of Spans Exceeding 8 Feet, Tests Should Be Made In Accordance With The Required Conditions. The Explanations Given On The Plate, In Connection With The Above, ...

Beams And Girders
Beams And Girders. Determination Of Loads. The First Step In The Calculation Of A Beam Or Girder Is To Determine The Exact Amount Of Load To Be Carried, And Its Distribution. Loads May Be Uniformly Distributed Or C Meentrated, Or Both In Combination. The Case Of A Simple Floor Or ...

Building Laws And Specifications
Building Laws And Specifications. The Requirements Of The Building Departments Of Different Cities Vary Considerably As Regards Detail Matters, But Are In Quite Close Agreement On Points Affecting The Strength Of Structures. The Following Table Shows The Requirements Of Different Cities As Regards Live Loads : Table Xi Gives, In ...

Connections And Details Of
Connections And Details Of Fraflino. Figs. 121 To 126 Show Types Of Connections Of Beams To Girders And Columns. Connections To Girders Are Nearly Always Of These Standard Forms, Which Are The Carnegie Standards. In Certain Cases, Individual Shops Have Forms That Vary Slightly Front These, But Not To Any ...

Detailing General Instructions
Detailing General Instructions Lettering. In Order That The Drawing May Give The Necessary Information And That No Mistakes Should Occur In The Reading Of The Drawing By The Shopmen Or Others, It Is Necessary That The Letters And Dimensions Upon The Drawing Be Made So That They Are Exceed Ingly ...

Detailing Methods
Detailing Methods Detailing Of Angles. The Line Upon Which The Rivets Are Spaced Is The Gauge Line. The Standard Gauges Given In Table Vii Should Not Be Departed From Unless Instructions Are Given Otherwise Or Unless It Is Impossible To Make The Detail Without Doing So, In Which Cases A ...

Detailing From Framing Plan
Detailing From Framing Plan. The Student Should Now Become Familiar With Detailing From A Framing Or Setting Plan. Fig. 199 Shows Such A Plan Upon Which Is All The Information Necessary To Detail The Different Members. The Information Given On Such A Plan Is Taken From The Various General Plans ...

Determination Of Bearing Value
Determination Of Bearing Value Of Rivets. In This Case It Is The Metal Which Bears On The Rivet Or Which The Rivet Bears On, Which Has To Be Considered; This Is In Compression And Liable To Failure, Therefore, Just As Is The Metal In A Column Or The Compression Side ...

Determination Of Shearing Value
Determination Of Shearing Value Of Rivets. The Resistance Of A Rivet To Shearing Along One Plane Is The Area Of The Rivet Multiplied By The Shearing Strength Of The Metal Per Unit Of Area. • If D = The Diameter In Inches Of The Rivet S = The Ultimate Shearing ...

Drafting Room Equipment And
Drafting Room Equipment And Practice Introduction. Structural Drafting May Be Defined As The Art Of Making Drawings Of Certain Objects And Placing Thereon Dimen Sions And Other Notes 'which When Taken Together Will Convey The Necessary Information For The Manufacture And In Some Cases The Erection Of The Structure Under ...

Floor And Roof Arches
Floor And Roof Arches. Terra Cotta Floor And Roof Arches. Burnt-clay Products Include Crick, Porous Tile, And Hard Or Dense Tile. The Latter Two Are Commonly Called Terra Cotta. The Use Of Brick For Arches Between Beams Has, In Building Construction At Least, Become Almost Entirely Obsolete. This Is Clue ...

Foundations
Foundations. There Are Three General Types Of Foundations. (1) Spread Foundations. (2) Foundations To Bed Rock By Piers Or Caissons. (3) Pile Foundations. The Form Of Foundation Used Depends Largely On The Charac Ter Of Underlying Soil, And The Amount And Arrangement Of The Loads And The Depths Which Can ...

High Building Construction
High Building Construction. Origin Of The Types. Iron Has Been Employed Extensively In Buildings For Many Years. The First Building In This Country Of What Is Now Known As The Skeleton Type Of Construction, Was The Home Fire Insurance Company Building, Built In Chicago In 1883, Of Which Mr. W. ...

Note
Note. Due Attention In Selecting The Beam Must Be Given To Lateral And Vertical Deflection As Previously Noted, Or To A Proper Reduction Of The Specified Fibre Stress To Allow For These Considerations. 1. Given A 15-inch 60-lb. Beam On A Span, Center To Center Of Bearings, Of 22 Feet ...

Note
Note. This Applies For All Channels And Beams Except 20-inch I And 24-inch I. For 20-inch Standard I, S = .55 Inch For 24-inch I, S = .60 " For 20-inch Special I, S = .65 " The Slope Of Flanges For All Beams And Channels Is 2 Inches Per ...

Note_2
Note. In All Above Cases, Partitions Are Of 3-inch Terra Cotta Blocks, And Come Only Over Girders. Clear Story Height = 10 Feet. Give Loads For Both Beams And Girders. 8. Required A Lintel Over Opening Shown By Fig. 92. Clear Span 15 Feet, Wall 16 Inches Thick And 50 ...