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Cyclopedia of Architecture, Carpentry and Building : A General Reference Work (1912)

344 X2
+34.4 X2 X20— (11.47+5.73)20+ U,u, X 24.28 = 0 U,u, = —42.51. The Stress In Is Determined By Passing A Vertical Section In The 3d Panel, And Taking The Sum Of The Horizontal Forces. As There Is No Dead-load Stress In The Members And Their Compo Nents Will Be Zero. ...

Asphalt Pavements
Asphalt Pavements. Asphaltic Paving Materials. All Asphaltic Or Bituminous Pave Ments Are Composed Of Two Essential Parts—namely, The Cementing Material (matrix) And The Resisting Material (aggregate). Each Has A Distinct Function To Perform; The First Furnishes And Preserves The Co Herency Of The Mass; The Second Resists The Wear Of ...

Brick Pavements
Brick Pavements Characteristics Of Brick Suitable For Paving. These Are: (1) Not To Be Acted Upon By Acids. (2) Not To Absorb More Than 1-600 Of Its Weight Of Water In 4s Hours. (3) Not Susceptible To Polish. (4) Rough To The Touch, Resembling Fine Sandpaper. (5) To Give A ...

Bridge Analysis
Bridge Analysis Introduction. The Following Treatment Of The Subject Of Bridge Analysis, While Not Exhaustive, Is Regarded As Sufficiently Elaborate To Develop And Instill The Principal Theoretical Considera Tions, To Illustrate The Most Convenient And Practical Methods Of Analyzing The Common Forms Of Trusses And Girders, And Also To Lay ...

Bridge Design Go
Bridge Design Go. General Economic Considerations. The Prime Considera Tion Which Influences The Decision To Build Is Cost. After The Decision To Build Has Been Made, The Problem Is One Of A Purely Engineering Character, Whereas In The First Case It Was One Of Either A Political Or An Engineering ...

Constituents Land
Constituents Land • Hued 85th Per Cent Per Cent Per Cent Water 27.85 34.10 26.62 Inorganic Matter 2538 25.46 27.57 Organic Non-bituminous Matter . 7-1i3 6.25 8.05 Bitumen 38.14 34.50 37.76 100.00 100.00 - 101.00 When The Analyses Are Calculated To A Basis Of Dry Substances, The Composition Is: Inorganic ...

Country Roads
Country Roads. Object Of Roads. The Object Of A Road Is To Provide A Way For The Transportation Of Persons And Goods From One Place To Another With The Least Expenditure Of Power And Expense. The Facility With Which This Traffic Or Transportation May Be Conducted Over Any Given Road ...

Design Of A Plate Girder
Design Of A Plate-girder Rail`yay-span 68. The Masonry Plan. In Some Cases The General Dimensions Of The Masonry Are Limited; Such A Ease, For Example, Would Occur In The Crossing Of A Street Or Narrow Waterway. Here The Length Of The Span And The Distance Above The Street Or The ...

Design Of A Through
Design Of A Through Pratt Railway-span 70. The Masonry Plan. The Same Remarks Which Are Made In Article 67 Apply Here. In This Case The Length Of The Masonry Plate Is Usually Determined By Considerations Relative To The Number And Length Of The Rollers In The Bearing, And Not By ...

Drainage
Drainage. In The Construction Of Roads, Drainage Is Of The First Importance. The Ability Of Earth To Sustain A Load Depends In A Large Measure Upon The Amount Of Moisture Retained By It. Most Earths :form A Good Firm Foundation So Long As They Are Kept Dry, But When Wet ...

Earthwork
Earthwork. The Term "earthwork" Is Applied To All The Operations Per Formed In The Making Of Excavation And Embankments. In Its Widest Sense It Comprehends Work In Rock As Well As In The Looser Materials Of The Earth's Crust. Balancing Cuts And Fills. In The Construction Of New Roads, The ...

Engine Loads 44
Engine Loads 44. Use Of En Gine Loads. It Was Formerly The Custom For Railroads To Spec Ify That The Engine To Be Used In Computing The Stresses In Their Bridges Should Be One Of Their Own Which Was In Actual Use. The Engines Of Differ Ent Roads Were Usual ...

Foundations
Foundations The Stability, Permanence, And Maintenance Of Any Pavement Depend Upon Its Foundation. If The Foundation Is Weak, The Surface Will Soon Settle Unequally, Forming Depressions And Ruts. With A Good Foundation, The Condition Of The Surface Will Depend Upon The Material Employed For The Pavement And Upon The Manner ...

Kind Of Pavement
Kind Of Pavement Pounds Per Too In Terms Of The Toad Asphalt (sheet) 30 To 70 A. To T 'l Bruck 15 •• 40 T 1 - As Cobblestones 50 •' 100 1 1 Tt Stone-block 30 •• 84 1 • 1 Ls Wood-block Rectangular 30 •• • 1 Afi ...

L 780 U
+78.0 - U,l, X 0.7685 = 0 .'. U,l, = + 101.6 For The Maximum Stresses In The Verticals, Sections 1-1, 2-2, And 3-3 Are Passed, And In Each Case The Panel Points To The Left Of These Loaded. The Shears Are V, , 628.4 (1 + 2 + 3 ...

L L
L,'l, = +15.0 X 1.544 = +23.15 L,'l, = -15.0 = + 9.0 X 1.544 = +13.91 L,'l, - - 9.0 The Maximum Chord Stresses Due To This Load Of 450 Pounds Per Linear Foot Of Train, Occur When The Train Covers The Entire Span; And They Are Directly Proportional ...

L U
+ U,l, — 23.4 = 0 .. U,l, = + 23.4 To Determine The Minimum Live-load Stress In Proceed As Indicated On Page 42. By Loading Points And To The Left, The Live Load Shear In The 4th Panel Will Be —46.8, And In The 3d Panel Under This Same ...

L U
U,l, _ +1.28 X 88.8 = +113.6 -1.28 X 6.7 = -8.6 U,l, = + 1.28 X 50.5 = + 64.7 0 Live-load Stresses In The Verticals. The Maximum Stress In Occurs When One Of The Large Drivers Is At L,, And The Loads In The First Panel Are As ...

Location Of Country Roads
Location Of Country Roads. The Considerations Governing The Location Of Country Roads Are Dependent Upon The Commercial Condition Of The Country To Be Traversed. In Old And Long Inhabited Sections The Controlling Ele Ments Will Be The Character Of The Traffic To Be Accommodated. In Such A Section, The Route ...

Panama Improvement Of The
Improvement Of The City Of Colon, Panama Fourth Street Before Paving. For View Of Same Street After Paving, See Page 331. Wagons In. The Same Time, And That The Cost Of This Hal,dling Is From 11 To 21 Cents Per Cubic Yard. Points To Be Considered In Selecting A Road ...

Pd 5 X20x
Pd = 5 X 20x 15 + 2 X 20x 8 + 16x 20x 10 = 5 020 Pounds. Therefore, In The Case Of A Single-track Railroad Bridge, There Are Only Two Stringers Upon Which The Weight Of The Track, The Engine, And The Train Is Supported. These Join The ...

Road Coverings
Road Coverings. Road Coverings Consist Of Some Foreign Material As Gravel, Broken Stone, Clay, Etc., Placed On The Surface Of The Earth Road. The Object Of This Covering, Whatever Its Nature, Is (1) To Protect The Natural Soil From The Effect Of Weather And Travel, And (2) To Furnish A ...

Selecting The Pavement
Selecting The Pavement The Problem Of Selecting The Best Pavement For Any Particular Case Is A Local One, Not Only For Each City, But Also For Each Of The Various Parts Into Which The City Is Imperceptibly Divided; And It Involves So Many Elements That The Nicest Balancing Of The ...

Stone Block Pavements
Stone Block Pavements Stone Blocks Are Commonly Employed For Pavements Where Traffic Is Heavy. The Material Of Which The Blocks Are Made Should Possess Sufficient Hardness To Resist The Abrasive Action Of Traffic, And Sufficient Toughness To Prevent Them From Being Broken By The Impact Of Loaded Wheels. The Hardest ...

Streets And Highways
Streets And Highways The First Work Requiring The Skill Of The Engineer Is To Lay Out Town Sites Properly, Especially With Reference To The Future Requirements Of A Large City Where Any Such Possibility Exists. Few If Any Of Our Large Cities Were So Planned. The Same Principles, To A ...