Quick effects of light and shade can be best produced by the use of soft pencils because they give off the color so freely and the strokes blend so easily into flat tones.
A medium or hard pencil is necessary when a drawing is to be small in size and is intended to express details of form and con struction rather than masses of light and shade. This is because the lines made by hard pencils are finer, and more clean and crisp than can be obtained by using soft grades. The smaller the draw ing, the more expression of- detail desired, the harder the pencil should be; a good general rule for all quick studies of effects of light and shade is to use as soft a pencil as is consistent with the size of. the drawing and the the paper. Beginners, how ever; are obliged to snake many trial lines to obtain correct propor tions, and in that way produce construction lines so heavy that the eraser required to remove them leaves the paper in a damaged condition. Until the student can draw fairly well he.should begin every piece of work with a medium and take care to snake very light lines and especially to avoid indenting the paper.
It should be understood that pencil drawings ought never to be very large. There should always be a proportional relation between the-size of a drawing and the medium which produces it. The point of a pencil is so small that to make a with it consumes a disproportionate amount of time. For large drawings, especially such showing light and shade, crayon or coal are the proper materials for they can be made to cover a large surface in a very short time. The larger the area to be covered the larger should be the point and the line producing it.
Special pencils with large leads can be obtained for making large pencil drawings.
n. Paper. In general the firmer the surface of the paper the harder the pencil one can use on it. For a medium or hard pencil the paper. should be tough and rather smooth but never glazed. Many very cheap grades of paper. for example that on which newspapers are printed, take the pencil very well but have not a gull:intently tough surface to allow the use of the eraser. They
are excellent for rapid sketches made very directly without altera tions.
Paper for effects of light and shade should be soft and smooth. For this work the cheaper grades of paper are often more suitable than the expensive sorts. Paper with a rough surface should always be avoided in pencil drawings, as it gives a disagreeable " wooly " texture to the lines.
The most important points in drawing are to be accurate and at the same time direct and free. Of course, aceuracy—the ability to set down things in their right proportions--is indispensable; but the abilty to do this in the most straightforward way without. constraint, fumbling, and erasures is also necessary. Art has been defined as the doing of any one thing supremely well.
The pencil should be held lightly between the thumb and forefinger three or four inches from the point, supported by the middle finger, with hand turned somewhat on its side.
There are three ways in which it is possible to move the pen cil; with the fingers, the wrist, or the arm. Most people find it convenient to use the finger movement for drawing short, vertical lines. In order to produce a long line by this movement it is only necessary to make a succession of short lines with the ends touch. ing each other but not overlapping, or by leaving the smallest pos sible space between the end of one line and the beginning of the next. The wrist movement produces a longer line and is used naturally to make hOrizontal lines. For a very long sweep of line the movement of the arm from the shoulder is necessary. Tide is, perhaps, the most difficult way of drawing for the beginner, but it affords the greatest freedom and sweep, and many teachers con sider it the only proper method.