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Cyclopedia of Architecture, Carpentry and Building : A General Reference Work (1912)

A Glossary Of Architectural
A Glossary Of Architectural Terms And Classical Proper Names Abacus (ab'a-kus). The Square Plinth Or Tablet Forming The Upper Or Crown Ing Member Of The Capital Of A Column Or Pillar, Supporting The Classical Entablature. (see Fig. 61.) Abutment (a-but'ment). The Solid Masonry Construction Supporting Each Side Of An Arch, ...

Analysis Of The Greek
Analysis Of The Greek Order. The Greek "order" Is An Architectural Composition Resulting From The Combination Of A Platform Or Stylobate, A Column, And An Entablature. A Pedestal Is Not Employed With The Greek Column. The Platform, Or Stylobate, Consists Of A Plain Mass Of Greater Or Lesser Height, Upon ...

Architecture Of The Romans
Architecture Of The Romans Origin Of Roman Architecture. While The Architecture Of Egypt, As Well As That Of Other Early Civilizations, Probably Contributed Toward The Style That Was Eventually Produced And Defined By The Greek Art Ists, The Romans, By Their Conquest Of Greece, At Once Acquired A Uni Fied ...

Classic Roman Corinthian
Classic Roman Corinthian Transition From Greek To Roman Order, And Difference Between The Two. A Mere Glance At The Architecture Of The Romans Shows That They Depended Upon Richness Of Ornamentation And Tremendous Size To Make An Effect Upon The Beholder. . They Found That The Co Rinthian Order Proved ...

Classic Roman Doric
Classic Roman Doric It Seems, Therefore, That In Roman Buildings The Earlier Usage Followed Very Closely The Greek Models In The Position Of The Triglyph, And In The Sections Of The Mouldings Themselves; But The Real Roman Doric Order Is That Shown In Their Later Work. By The Time Of ...

Classic Roman Ionic
Classic Roman Ionic Development And Use Of The Order. There'are Comparatively Few Remains Of Roman Buildings Where The Ionic Order Was Originally Used. Among The Romans This Order Certainly Never Met With The Favor Accorded To It By The Greeks. At The Same Time, The Great Num Ber Of Antique ...

Corinthian Order
Corinthian Order The Greeks Invented, Besides Those Already Mentioned, Another Order—the Corinthian. In The Early Examples Of This Order Which Remain, We See Evidences Of The Same Processes Of Experimentation As Tended To The Development Of The Doric Order, Although It Remained For The Later Romans To Give This Type ...

Early Roman Doric
Early Roman Doric All Varieties Of Roman Columns, Other Than Those Distinctly Marked By The Design Of Their Capitals As Ionic, Corinthian, Or Com Posite, Are Termed Tuscan (etruscan), Unless It Is Known That The Frieze Is Decorated With Triglyphs, Which In Roman Work Thus Again Become The Distinguishing Feature ...

Entasis Of The Roman
Entasis Of The Roman Column The Romans Seem To Have Adopted One General Method Of Dimin Ishing Or Tapering Their Columns, Evidently Based On The Ionic And Corinthian Shafts Of The Greek Orders. In Adapting To Their Own Pur Poses The Greek Entasis, They Made No Allowance For The Fact ...

Greek Antae Or Pilasters
Greek Antae Or Pilasters Doric Pilasters. The Plan Adopted By The Greeks In Their Doric Temple Structures, Was One That Would Necessarily Increase The Im Portance Of The Column Shafts, And Required A Sharp Demarcation Between The Fluted Columns And The Contrasting Plain Wall Surface. In The Early Temples With ...

Greek Intercolumniation
Greek Intercolumniation The Intercolumniation Of A Colonnade Is The Spacing Apart Of The Columns, The Distance Given Being That In The Clear Between Them. The Distances Between The Centers Of The Columns Are Invariably One Diameter More Than The Intercolumniation Or Space Between. Doric Intercolumniation. The Spacing Of All Doric ...

Greek Mouldings
Greek Mouldings The Various Divisions Of An Order Are Adorned With Mouldings Projecting Beyond The Face Of The Parts To Which They Are Applied. They Vary Somewhat In Shape, Ornamentation, And Number, In The Different Orders. There Is More Difference In This Particular Between The Doric And Ionic Orders, Than ...

Ionic Order
Ionic Order Origin Of The Ionic Order. Very Possibly, At About The Same Time As The Doric Column Was Slowly Developing From The Rock-cut Pier, The Use Of Tree Trunks For Support Had Suggested A Circular Tapering Form Of A Column To Those Nations Who Erected Their Buildings Of Wood. ...

Light And Shade
Light And Shade. Values. If Several Lines Are Drawn Parallel And Quite Close Together, But Not Touching, A Gray, Or Half-tone Value Is The Result. Lines Drawn So Close Together That The Ink Of One Runs Into That Of The Other, With Little Or No White Space Between, Give A ...

Line Work
Line Work. Quality Of Line. Too Much Stress Cannot Be Laid On The Im Portance Of A Good Line, However Insignificant It May Seem. Care In Each Individual Line Is Absolutely Necessary For Good Work. A Line That Is Stiff And Bard, Feeble, Scratchy Or Broken, Will Not Do. Such ...

Roman Doorways
Roman Doorways The Doorway Shown In Fig. 138 Was Drawn And Rendered By Emanuel Brune, At Just One-tenth Of Its Original Size, From The Remains Of A Doorway In The Doric Temple Of Hercules At Cora. The Scale In The Center Of The Drawing At The Bottom Indicates The Length ...

Roman Gateways And Triumphal
Roman Gateways And Triumphal Arches Of The Famous Triumphal Arches Left By Roman Builders, The Majority Employed The Use Of The Order In Either The Corinthian Or Composite Forms. These Arches Were Generally Of Two Types. In One—the Grander And The More Imposing—there Was One Large Central Arch For The ...

Roman Intercolumniation
Roman Intercolumniation The Roman Custom In The Spacing Of Columns Is Of Much Greater Interest To The Architect Of To-day Than The Custom Of The Greeks, In That The Romans Were Not Held Down By The Considerations That Restricted The Greeks In The Use Of Available Lengths Of Stone Which ...

Roman Mouldings
Roman Mouldings The Mouldings Employed By The Romans Are Generally Fol Lowed, Through The Medium Of The Renaissance Work Of Italy And Eng Land, In Most Of The Work Executed To-day; And These Sections Are There Fore Evidently Even More Important To The Student Than The Greek Mouldings Which He' ...

Roman Pilasters
Roman Pilasters The Use Of Pilasters By The Romans Was Very Different From The Greek Custom, And The Pilaster Is Given A Much More Important Place In Their Architectural Development. The Roman Pilaster In The Later Periods Is Practically The Same As The Column In Its Treatment Of The Capital ...

The Bear At Devizes
The Bear At Devizes Probably No Draftsman Living Can Surpass Robert Renton In Brilliant Technique, The Free Use Of Line, And Ingenious Method. His Work Is Especially Adapted To Architectural Illustration. It Will Repay Good Effort To Copy This With Care. This Copy Retains Most Commendably The Spirit Of The ...

The Composite Order
The Composite Order The Arch Of Titus (fig. 134) Contains The Earliest Known Example In Rome Of The Use Of The Composite Order. However, While The First Example In Rome, There Are Still Earlier Ones Existing In Cities Of Asia Minor. Perhaps The Earliest Instance Of The Use Of This ...

The Doric Order
The Doric Order. We Find In Egypt, At The Catacombs Of Beni-hassan, The Rough, Primitive Type Of The Doric Order; And It May Be From Here That The Greeks Received Their Inspiration. It Is Sufficient To Compare The Design Of The Column At Beni-hassan, Which We May Call Pro-doric (fig.31), ...

The Entasis Of The
The Entasis Of The Greek Column The Greeks, In Proportioning Their Doric Columns, Arrived At An Apparent System Of Entasis That Is Radically Different From The More Customary Method Employed On All Roman Columns. No Part Of The Outline Of The Doric Column Is Parallel With Its Axis Or Center ...

The Greek Orders Of
The Greek Orders Of Architecture Of Ancient Buildings, The Only Ones Which Have Come Down To Us In Any Sort Of Preservation Are The Temples Built For The Religious Wor Ship Of The Various Peoples. All Their Domestic Architecture Was Evidently Of Such An Ephemeral Character That It Has Long ...

The Roman Orders
The Roman Orders The Roman Order Is Prop Erly Composed Of Three Parts— The Column, The Entablature, And The Pedestal, As Shown In Fig. 105. The Pedestal Is Often Omitted In Modern Work; And The Term Order, As Has Already Been Stated, May Be Applied As Well To The Column ...

The Steel Square
The Steel Square The Standard Steel Square Has A Blade 24 Inches Long And 2 Inches Wide, And A Tongue From 14 To 18 Inches Long And 1 Inches Wide. The Blade Is At Right Angles To The Tongue. The Face Of The Square Is Shown In Fig. 1. It ...