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Types of Arc Lamps

arcs, lamp, enclosed, series, voltage and connected

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TYPES OF ARC LAMPS Arc lamps are constructed to operate on direct-current or alter nating-current systems when connected in series or in multiple. They are also made in both the open and the enclosed forms.

By an open arc is meant an arc lamp in which the arc is exposed to the atmosphere, while in the enclosed arc an inner or enclosing globe surrounds the arc, and this globe is covered with a cap which renders it nearly air-tight. Fig. 38 is a good example of an enclosed arc as manufactured by the General Electric Company.

Direct-Current Arcs.

Open Types of Arcs for direct-current systems were the first to be used to any great extent. When used they arc always connected in series, and are run from some form of special arc machine, a description of which may be found in "Types of Dynamo Electric Machinery." Each lamp requires in the neighborhood of 50 volts for its opera tion, and, since the lamps are connected in series, the voltage of the system will depend on the number of lamps; therefore, the number of lamps that may be connected to one machine is limited by the maximum allowable voltage on that machine. By special construction as many as 125 lamps are run from one machine, but even this size of generator is not so efficient as one of greater capacity. Such gen erators are usually wound for 6.6 or 9.6 amperes. Since the carbons are exposed to the air at the arc, they are rapidly consumed, requiring that they be renewed daily for this type of lamp.

Double-carbon arcs. In order to increase the life of the early form of arc lamp without using too long a carbon, the double-carbon type was introduced. This type uses two sets of carbons, both sets being fed by one mechanism so arranged that when one pair of the elec trodes is consumed the other is put into service. At present nearly all forms of the open arc lamp have disappeared on account of the better service rendered by the enclosed arc.

Enclosed arcs for series systems are constructed much the same as the open lamp, and are controlled by either shunt or differential mechanism. They require a voltage from 68 to 75 at the arc, and are

usually constructed for from 5 to 6.8 amperes. They also require a constant-current generator or a rectifier outfit if used on alternating current circuits.

Constant-potential arcs must have some resistance connected in series with them to keep the voltage at the arc at its proper value. This resistance is made adjustable so that the lamps may be used on any circuit. Its location is clearly shown in Fig. 38, one coil being located above, the other below the operating solenoids.

Alternating-Current Arcs.

These do not differ greatly in con struction from the direct-current arcs. When iron or other metal parts are used in the controlling mechanism, they must be laminated or so constructed as to keep down induced or eddy currents which might be set up in them. For this reason the metal spools, on which the solenoids are wound, are slotted at some point to prevent them from forming a closed secondary to the primary formed by the solen oid winding. On constant-potential circuits a reactive coil is used in place of a part of the resistance for cutting down the voltage at the arc.

Interchangeable Arc.

Interchangeable arcs are manufactured which may be readily adjusted so as to operate on either direct or alternating current, and on voltages from 110 to 220. Two lamps may be run in series on 220-volt circuits.

The distribution of light, and the resulting illumination for the different lamps just considered, will be taken up later. Aside from the distribution and quality of light, the enclosed arc has the advan tage that the carbons are not consumed so rapidly as in the open lamp because the oxygen is soon exhausted from the inner globe and the combustion of the carbon is greatly decreased. They will burn from 80 to 100 hours without retrimming.

Rating of Arc Lamps. Open arcs have been classified as follows; Full Arcs, 2,000 candle-power taking 9.5 to 10 amps. or 450-480 watts. Half Arcs, 1,200 candle-power taking 6.5 to 7 amps. or 325-350 watts.

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