Home >> Cyclopedia-of-architecture-carpentry-and-building-a-general-reference-v-10 >> 000 X 20 28 to The House Drainage System

# Cyclopedia of Architecture, Carpentry and Building : A General Reference Work (1912)

000 X 20 28
78,000 X 20 = 28,363 B. T. U.; 55 And This Divided By 400 = 71 Square Feet Of Heating Surface Required. 1. A Schoolroom On The Third Floor Has 50 Pupils, Who Are To Be Furnished With 30 Cubic Feet Of Air Per Minute Each. What Will Be The ...

000 X 70 55
50,000 X 70 _ 55 = 63,636 B. T. U. For Ventilation; Then, 63,636 + 100,000 = 372 + Square Feet. 440 1. A Schoolroom Having 40 Pupils Is To Be Warmed And Venti Lated When It Is 10 Degrees Below Zero. If The Heat Loss By Conduction Is 30,000 ...

344 X 116 X
57,344 X 1.16 X 1.10 X 1.10 X 1.20 = 96,338 B. T. U. If One Pound Of Coal Furnishes 8,000 B. T. U., Then 96,338 _ 8,000 = 12 Pounds Of Coal Per Hour Required To Warm The Building To 70° Under The Conditions Stated. Approximate Method. For Dwelling-houses ...

Air Distribution
Air Distribution The Location Of The Air Inlet To A Room Depends Upon The Size Of The Room And The Purpose For Which It Is Used. In The Case Of Living Rooms In Dwelling-houses, The Registers Are Placed Either In The Floor Or In The Wall Near The Floor; This ...

Care And Management Of
Care And Management Of Iieating Boilers Special Directions Are Usually Supplied By The Maker For Each Kind Of Boiler, Or For Those Which Are To Be Managed In Any Peculiar Way. The Following General Directions Apply To All Makes, And May Be Used Regardless Of The Type Of Boiler Employed: ...

Computing Radiation Computing Direct Radiation. It Is A Perfectly Simple Matter To Compute The Amount Of Radiation Required To Heat A Room, By Finding The Probable Loss Of Heat Per Hour, And Dividing This By The Heat Given Off By A Square Foot Of Radiating Surface In The Same Time. ...

Computing Radiation Computing Direct Radiation. The Process Of Computing Hot Water Radiating Surface Is Precisely The Same As That Explained For Ascer Taining The Amount Of Steam Radiation Required For A Given Case, With This Important Exception: The Hot-water Radiators Give Off Only About As Much Heat Per Square Foot ...

Direct Hot Water Heating
Direct Hot-water Heating A Hot-water System Is Similar In Construction And Operation To One Designed For Steam, Except That Hot Water Flows Through The Pipes And Radiators Instead. The Circulation Through The Pipes Is Produced Solely By The Dif Ference In Weight Of The Water In The Supply And Return, ...

Direct Steam Heating
Direct-steam Heating A System Of Direct-steam Heating Consists (1) Of A Furnace And Boiler For The Combustion Of Fuel And The Generation Of Steam; (2) A System Of Pipes For Conveying The Steam To The Radiators And For Returning The Water Of Condensation To The Boiler; And (3) Radiators Or ...

Direct Supply
Direct Supply The Salient Features Of The Supply System For City Pressure, Not Already Mentioned, Are; Separate Shut-off Cocks For The Supplies Of Each Fixture; Separate Lines To Each Isolated Fixture Or To Each Group Of Fixtures; I-inch Supply To All Sinks, Trays, And Baths; I-inch Supply To Water-closet Tanks; ...

Double Extra Strong Pipe
Double Extra Strong Pipe: This Pipe Is Approximately Twice As Heavy As Extra Strong, And Is Made From To 8 Inches, In Both Iron And Steel._ It Is Difficult, However, To Find Any Quantity In "strictly Wrought-iron," And The Stock Carried Is Usually Soft Steel. This Pipe Is Shipped With ...

Ducts And Flues
Ducts And Flues Areas Of Ducts And Flues. When Indirect Radiation Is Installed Primarily For Heating, Ventilation Being A Secondary Consideration, It Is Desirable To Make The Flues Somewhat Smaller In Proportion To The Heating Surface Than Is Done With Steam Heating. If The Flues Are Made Too Large, The ...

Exhaust Steam Heating
Exhaust-steam Heating Buildings Having Their Own Power And Lighting Plant Should Be Heated By Exhaust Steam, About 90 Per Cent Of The Steam That Passes Through The En Gines And Pumps Being Available For This Purpose. A Portion Of This Steam Is Used For Heating The Feed-water To The Boilers. ...

Filters
Filters Filters Are Of Two Classes. One Class Is Designed To Be Attached To The End Of The Faucet Or To Special Connection For Drawing Directly For Use. The Other Is For 'use In The General House Service, And Filters All The Water That Passes Through The Main Service For ...

Flues Ducts
Ducts, Flues, And Registers Areas Of Ducts And Flues. The Area Of The Cold-air Connec Tions With The Benches Or Stacks Of Indirect Radiators, Are Generally Based On 1 To 1} Square Inches Of Area To Each Square Foot Of Surface In The Radiators. The Flues To The First Floor ...

Forced Hot Water Lation
Forced Hot-water Lation While The Gravity System Of Hot Water Heating Is Well Adapted To Buildings Of Small And Medium Size, There Is A Limit To Which It Can Be Car Ried Economically. This Is Due To The Slow Movement Of The Water, Which Calls For Pipes Of Excessive Size. ...

Furnace Heating
Furnace Heating In Construction, A Furnace Is A Large Stove With A Combustion Chamber Of Ample Size Over The Fire, The Whole Being Inclosed In A Casing Of Sheet Iron Or Brick. The Bottom Of The Casing Is Provided With A Cold-air Inlet, And At The Top Are Pipes Which ...

Gas Piping
Gas Piping The Work Of Piping For Gas Is So Closely Allied To That Of Plumbing, Since Iron Pipe Has Come Into General Use, That A Brief Notice Of This Branch Is Not Out Of Place In Connection With Matters Pertaining To Plumbing. Coal Gas Is Only About One-half The ...

Hot Water Heaters
Hot-water Heaters Types. Hot-water Heaters Differ From Steam Boilers Principally In The Omission Of The Reservoir Or Space For Steam Above The Heating Surface. The Steam Boiler Might Answer As A Heater For Hot Water; But The Large Capacity Left For The Steam Would Tend To Make Its Tion Slow ...

Hot Water Heating
Hot-water Heating Heaters. Hot-water Heaters—or "boilers," As They Are Some Times Miscalled—are So Nearly Like The Cast-iron Steam Boilers Pre Viously Illustrated, That It Is Unnecessary Further To Describe Them Here. Some Makers Use The Same Patterns For Both Steam Boilers And Hot-water Heaters, While Others Use A Higher Boiler ...

Hot Water Piping
Hot-water Piping Heater Connections. Where Only One Heater Is Used, The Con Nections Are Practically The Same As For Steam Heating, Except That No Check-valves Are Used. Where Two Boilers Are To Be Connected And Arranged To Be Run Independently Or Together, Valves Must Be Inserted Somewhat As Shown By ...

House Water Supply
House Water Supply While The Plumber Is Apt To Give More Attention To Supply Pipe, And To Methods Of Installing It In Buildings To Secure Specific Service, Water Supply Embraces Also, In Its Broadest Sense, The Source And Qual Ity Of Water And The Means Of Conveying It To The ...

Indirect Hot Water Heating
Indirect Hot-water Heating This Is Used Under The Same Conditions As Indirect Steam, And The Heaters Used Are Similar To Those Already Described. Special Attention Is Given To The Form Of The Sections, In Order That There May Be An Even Distribution Of Water Through All Parts Of Them. As ...

Indirect Steam Heating
Indirect Steam Heating As Already Stated, In The Indirect Method Of Steam Heating, A Special Form Of Heater Is Placed Beneath The Floor, And Encased In Galvanized Iron Or In Brickwork. A Cold-air Box Is Connected With The Space Beneath The Heater; And Warm-air Pipes At The Top Are Connected ...

Modified Systems Of Steam
Modified Systems Of Steam Heating. It Is Beyond The Scope Of This Course To Go Into The Details Of The Various Modified Or Patented Systems Of Steam Circulation, Yet It Seems Advisable To Point Out The Essential Features Of Certain Of These Systems. The Webster And Paul Systems Will Be ...

Neat Loss From Buildings
Neat Loss From Buildings A British Thermal Unit, Or B. T. U., Has Been Defined As The Amount Of Heat Required To Raise The Temperature Of One Pound Of Water One Degree F. This Measure Of Heat Enters Into Many Of The Calculations Involved In The Solving Of Problems In ...

Plumbing
Plumbing Plumbing Occupies An Important Position Among The Trades As An Application Of Sanitary Science. Sanitary Science Is Defined By An Eminent Authority* As "that Body Of Hygienic Knowledge, Which, Having Been Sufficiently And Critically Examined, Has Been Found So Far As Tested To Be Invariably True. Its Phenomena Are ...

Plumbing Fixtures
Plumbing Fixtures Bathtubs. Bathtubs Are A Prime Factor In Plumbing. They Are Of Various Types :— (1) Wooden Cases, With Sheet-metal Lining, Usually Copper, On The Order Shown In Fig. 1; (2) All Copper, And Steel-clad, Suitably Mounted, As Shown In Fig. 2; (3) Cast Iron, Enameled, With A Vitreous ...

Principles Of Ventilation
Principles Of Ventilation Closely Connected With The Subject Of Heating Is The Pn.blem Of Maintaining Air Of A Certain Standard Of Purity In The Various Buildings Occupied. The Introduction Of Pure Air Can Be Done Properly Only In Con Nection With Some System Of Heating; And No System Of Heating ...

Pumps
Pumps A Common Suction Pump, Shown In Fig. 65, Is The Type Generaliy Used In Cisterns Or Other Very Short Lifts. B Is The Plunger; C, The Bottom Valve; And D, The Plunger Valve. When The Plunger Is Drawn Up, A Vacuum Is Formed In The Cylinder, And Water Flows ...

Service Pipes
Service Pipes The Supply To The House Should Have A Stop And Waste Immediately Outside The Wall—or, Preferably, Just Within The Wall If The Cellar Is Frost-proof. For Outside Use, The Iron Case Box Is Best. Combination Stop And Waste Cocks Or Valves Of Similar Principle Are Generally Used For ...

Steam Boilers
Steam Boilers Types. The Boilers Used For Heating Are The Same As Have Already Been Described For Power Work. In Addition There Is The Cast-iron Sectional Boiler, Used Almost Exclusively For Dwelling-houses. The Required Amount Of Grate Area, And The Proper Ratio Of Heat Ing Surface To Vary A Good ...

Steam Boilers And Connections
Steam Boilers And Connections Small Cast-iron Boilers. For Small Low-pressure Steam Heating Jobs, Boilers Made Up Of Very Few Sections Are Used. Two Types Are Illustrated In Figs. 1 And 2. The Ratings Of Such Boilers Range, As A Rule, From About 200 Square Feet To 800 Square Feet. These ...

Steam Piping
Steam Piping Size Of Main For Circuit System. Since The Main Of A Circuit System, As Described In Part I (heating And Ventilation), Must Carry Both Steam And Water Of Condensation, It Should Be Made Considerably Larger In Proportion To The Surface Supplied Than Mains Which Are Drip Ped At ...

Steam Pressures And Temperatures
Steam Pressures And Temperatures Steam Pressures And Temperatures Have A Certain Definite Relation To Each Other, The Temperature Increasing With The Pressure, But Not As Rapidly For A Given Increase With High-pressure As With Low-pressure Steam. For Example, With An Increase In Pressure From 10 Pounds To 20 Pounds, The ...