ZURICH, the canton of north-eastern Switzerland and which ranks officially first in the Confederation. Its total area is sq.m., of which the high proportion of 90.4% is reckoned as "pro ductive" (forests, 184.9 sq.m., and vineyards 4.6 sq.m., the latter showing a rapid decrease during the 2oth century, and now ranking much below Valais [vv.)). Of the rest, 27.8 sq.m. are occupied by lake waters, chiefly part of the Lake of Ziirich, but wholly within the canton are the Lakes of Greifen sq.m.) and Pfaffikon (14 sq.m.). The canton, though not one of the ancient three, joined the Confederation in 1351. Its irregularity of shape arises from its continued growth, up to 1803, by the addi tions of acquisitions made by the capital. As far back as 1362 the whole of the lower part of the lake was added, and by the purchase of Winterthur (1467) from the Habsburgs, it reached the Rhine. To-day it extends from its enclave in Baden, on the right bank of the Rhine (above the Thur junction to below the Toss junction) to some 8 m. S.W. of Pfaffikon See. It consists essentially of shallow river valleys draining Rhinewards and separated from one another by north-west to south-east ridges. The most important valley is that of the Linth, which expands into the Lake of ZUrich and is continued as the Limmat ; the ridge to the east is low and then successively eastwards are the valley of the river Aa-Glatt, which flows through the Greifen See; a higher ridge separating it from the more gorge-like Toss valley, and finally the highest ridge along the east boundary separating the Toss from the Toggenburg (q.v.). On the last ridge, Hornli reaches 3,727 feet. West of the Lake of Zurich is the strikingly parallel valley of the Sihl, bounded farther west by the Albis range, with Albishorn (3,012 ft.) as its highest point. All the valleys are occupied by railway lines and the Limmat (Zurich to Baden) carried the first line opened (1847) in Switzerland. From the town of Zurich standard lines and moun tain railways radiate in all directions; of the latter, one (south west) is for Uetliberg (2,864 f t.) the north buttress of the Albis range and one (north-east) is for ZUrichberg (2,285 ft.), on the ridge between the Limmat and the Glatt.
In 192o the population was 538,602, of whom 512,247 were German-speaking, 14,323 Italian-speaking, 6,8o6 French-speaking, and 1,024 Romansch-speaking, while there were 410,027 Protes tants, 113,357 Catholics, and 7,028 Jews. The capital of the
canton is Zurich (est. pop. 1925, 210,720), but Winterthur (51, is the only other considerable town. Uster (9,000) east of Greifen See, is an industrial town, while Thalwil (7,500), Horgen (8,48o) and Wadenswil all on the western shore of the Lake of ZUrich, are of note as industrial centres. Though the land is highly cultivated, yet the canton is essentially a great manu facturing area, especially of machinery and railway rolling-stock. Silk weaving and cotton weaving are widely spread, and the prod ucts of the former industry have a large foreign market. The can ton is divided into II administrative districts containing 186 communes. In 1869 the cantonal Constitution was revised, and no material changes have been made since. There is an executive (Regierungsrat) of seven members and a legislature (Kantonsrat) of 220 deputies (distributed amongst the electoral circles on a population basis, which varies from census to census). Each body holds office for three years, and is elected by a method making use of the principle of proportional representation. The compulsory referendum exists, and all laws and all financial decisions involving a total sum over 250,000 frcs., or an annual sum of 20,000 frcs., must be submitted to a popular vote. Any 5,000 voters can em ploy the "initiative" to force the Government to submit to the people any legislative or constitutional matter. Both members of the Federal Sainderat and the 27 members of the Federal Nation alrat are elected simultaneously by a popular vote, and hold office for three years. (See SWITZERLAND.) (W. E. WH.) ZURICH, the capital of the Swiss canton of the same name (Fr. Zurich; Ital. Zurigo ; Lat. Turicum). It is the most populous, the most important, and on the whole the finest town in Switzer land, and till 1848 was practically the capital of the Swiss Con federation. In 1920 it had 207,161 inhabitants, and by the census of December I, 1930, its population was 249,82o, and with its suburbs 309,541. Of the city's population 160,621 were Protes tants, 75,291 Roman Catholics and 5,742 Jews, while 230,209 were German-speaking, 6,633 French-speaking, 8,85o Italian-speaking, and 1,082 Romansch-speaking.