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Kediri

pop, ft, south, java, kedu and east

KEDIRI, a residency in East Java, Dutch East Indies, bounded on the east by Pasuruan, on the west by Madiun, on the north by Surabaya, and on the south by the Indian ocean. The middle eastern and middle western parts are very hilly, with high mountains, Mt. Willis 7,481 ft., and Mt. Kelut, 5,625 ft., also the extreme south, and limestone hills of low formation shut off practically all the coast from the interior, which consists of fertile plains bordering the river Brantas, which flows from the eastern border in a westerly direction and then turns north-eastwards and continues to the northern border. Area 7,042 sq. kilometres; pop. 2,469,955 Europeans and Eurasians, 25,811 foreign Asiatics, including Chinese). The natives are almost entirely Javanese. Rice (giving a yield of 2,798 lb. per acre ), sugar-cane, cotton, coffee, cocoa, coca, cassava, ground nuts and coconuts are grown; the principal crops are those of cassava and sugar cane, and there are tapioca and sugar factories; teak is obtained from the forests. Kediri (pop. 48,567), is the capital. It is on the banks of the Brantas, and is one of the centres of the sugar indus try; there are remains of Hindu temples in the neighbourhood (see JAVA). Other towns are Blitar (pop. 27,846), with the ruins of Panataram temple (Hindu) near by, Tulung Agung (pop. 31,767), Kertosono and Papar. All these towns are on the rail way which branches off from the main line to Surabaya at Ker tosono and runs southwest to Tulung Agung, and thence eastwards to Blitar, and on into Pasuruan. Steam tramways connect with Wates, Para and Kepung, other small towns. The Brantas is navigable. There are no harbours on the coast. Kediri was made into a residency in 1830, just after the war in Central Java. KEDU (Dutch, Kedoe), a residency in Middle Java, Dutch East Indies, bounded east by Surakarta and Jokjakarta, north by Semarang, west by Banjumas, and south by the Indian ocean. Area 4,66o sq. km.; pop. (1930) 2,129,894 (6,563 Europeans and

Eurasians). Kedu is one of the most densely inhabited regions in the world. The natives are almost wholly Javanese. There are high mountains all along the eastern border, in the centre, Mt. Sumbing (10,955 ft.), and north of Sumbing, where lie Mt. Sen doro (10,318 ft.) and the Dieng plateau (6,500 ft.). The popu lation is chiefly in the fertile valley which spreads on either side of the river Praga (there are three small rivers in the south), which runs southwards to the sea between the mountain ranges. The coast is a difficult one, with high sand ridges, and it has no harbours. Principal crops are rice, sugar-cane, tobacco and coco nuts; maize, rubber and ground-nuts are grown, and timber woods are extracted from the forests. Magelang, pop. 52.944 (4,169 Europeans and Eurasians), is the capital. Its altitude (1,250 ft.), gives it a comparatively cool climate, and it is an important mili tary station. It is on the steam tramway which traverses Kedu from south to north, running from the main railway line at Jokjakarta northwards to Parakan, and is a convenient starting place for Boro Budur and Mendut (see JAVA), which lie a few miles to the south. Another important town is Wonosobo, altitude 3,400 ft., which may be termed the capital of the Dieng plateau. It is connected by steam tramway with the main railway line at Purwakerto, in Banjumas, and is the rendezvous of travellers wishing to explore the highly interesting Hindu ruins of the Dieng plateau (see JAVA). Other towns are Muntilan, with a large Chinese colony, Purworejo (pop. 24,645), Krakal (thermal springs), Kebumen (pop. 14,102), Kutuarjo and Setjang, junc tion for a steam tramway connecting with Semarang. The main railway line from Batavia to Surabaya traverses the southern part of Kedu. The rivers are not navigable. Kedu was made into a residency in the time of Raffles.