KRASNOVODSK, a seaport of the Turcoman S.S.R. in 1' N., 52' E., on the south side of the Caspian sea, opposite to Baku, on the northern shore of Balkhan or Kras novodsk bay 69 ft. below sea level. Pop. (1926) 10,002. The town is the western terminus of the Central Asiatic Railway, built in 188o for strategic purposes, starting from Michael gulf to the south of Krasnovodsk bay. In 1896 Krasnovodsk a fort dating from 1717, became the terminus, in view of the shallow waters in Michael gulf. The increasing importance of the railway as a commercial link between the cotton producing regions of central Asia, and the cotton manufacturing regions of European Russia led to the construction 190o-1906 of the line from Orenburg to Tashkent, to avoid the difficulties of loading and unloading, and the seasonal nature, of the route from Krasnovodsk to Astrakhan.
However, Krasnovodsk is still the main outlet for the raw cotton and dried fruits of Turkmenistan and western Uzbekistan. Its
imports include naphtha, timber, corn and sugar, and much ex ceed its exports. The naphtha is mainly from Baku, though in 1926 efforts were made to revive the naphtha production of Cheleken island to the south of the town, which ceased during the war and civil war subsequent to 1914. During this period also the harbour of Krasnovodsk became silted and capital expendi ture on dredging and on development of harbour facilities is urgently needed (1928). The fishing industry also declined and is not yet restored. Glauber salts are found in Kara Bugaz bay to the north, and salt and sulphur are worked in the region. Ozokerite is obtained from Cheleken island, and the output in 1925-26 was 700 tons against 524 tons in