LODGE, SIR OLIVER JOSEPH ), English physicist, was born at Penkhull, Staffordshire, on June 12, 1851. He was intended for a business career, but being attracted to science he entered University College, London, in 1872. In 1875 he was appointed reader in natural philosophy at Bedford College for Women, and in 1879 he became assistant professor of applied mathematics at University College, London. Two years later he was called to the chair of physics in University College, Liverpool, where he remained till in 1900 he was chosen first principal of the new Birmingham University. He was knighted in 1902. His origi nal work includes investigations on lightning, the seat of the elec tromotive force in the voltaic cell, the phenomena of electrolysis and the speed of the ion, electromagnetic waves and wireless teleg raphy, the motion of the ether near the earth, and the application of electricity to the dispersal of fog and smoke. In addition to numerous scientific memoirs he wrote, among other works, Light ning Conductors and Lightning Guards, Signalling without Wires, Modern Views of Electricity, Electrons and The Ether of Space.
After 1910 Sir Oliver Lodge became increasingly prominent as a leader of psychical research and a strong believer in the possi bility of communicating with the dead, and he interested himself in a serious endeavour to reconcile science and religion. Among
his publications dealing with this subject are The Survival of Man (1909) ; Reason and Belief, 3rd ed. (i9i I); The War and After (1915); Raymond, or Life and Death (1916), a memoir of his son killed in the World War, with an account of communications be lieved to have been received from him since; Christopher: a Study in Human Personality (1918). Early in 1920 he made an extensive lecturing tour of the United States, having just pre viously retired from his post as principal of Birmingham Uni versity; and a few years later he published a series of popular scientific books of which the best known are The Making of Man (1924), Ether and Reality (1925), Relativity (1925), and Talks about Wireless (1925). In 1919 he received the Albert Medal of the Royal Society of Arts for his pioneer work in wireless telegraphy. He acted as president of the British Association, of the Physical Society, of the Society for Psychical Research, of the Radio Society and of the Röntgen Society; he became an F.R.S. in 1902.