LOUNSBURY, THOMAS RAYNESFORD 1915), American scholar, was born at Ovid, N.Y., on Jan. 1, 1838, and educated at Yale university (A.B., 1859; A.M., 1877). He was on the editorial staff of the American Encyclopaedia 1860-62, and then enlisted in the 126th N.Y. Volunteers to serve through the Civil War. In 1870 he became instructor and in 1871 professor of English language and literature in the Sheffield Sci entific school of Yale university. In 1906 he was retired as pro fessor emeritus. He was also librarian of the Sheffield Scientific school 1873-1906. He won recognition as a scholar in both branches of his subject : study of the English language and study of its literature. His History of the English Language (1879) is characterized by Prof. Brander Matthews as "a little masterpiece of carefully controlled information, and of marvellously lucid ex position." He followed this with later studies of pronunciation, usage and spelling no less authoritative : The Standard of Pro nunciation in English (1904); The Standard of Usage in English (1908) ; English Spelling and Spelling Reform (1909). He was
one of the most influential of those who advocated spelling reform and was one of the organizers, and later president, of the simpli fied spelling board. His studies in literature show him a master of his successive subjects. His first was a Life of James Fenimore Cooper (1882). Studies in Chaucer in three impressive volumes (1891) remains an enduring work. His Shakespeare as a Dramatic Artist 0900, Shakespeare and Voltaire (1902), and The Text of Shakespeare (1906) marked him as one of the foremost writers on Shakespearian subjects. He also wrote The Early Literary Career of Robert Browning (Iwo) and edited the complete works of Charles Dudley Warner. He died on Apr. 9, 1915.