MARMONT, AUGUSTE FREDERIC LOUIS VIESSE DE, DUKE OF RAGUSA (1774-1852), marshal of France, was born at Chatillon-sur-Seine on July 20, the son of an ex-officer in the army. He studied mathematics at Dijon with a view to entering the artillery, and there met Bonaparte, with whom he later served in Toulon. Marmont became Bonaparte's aide-de-camp, remained with him during his disgrace, and accom panied him to Italy and Egypt, being promoted to general of brigade. He returned to Europe in 1799, organized the artillery for the expedition to Italy, and was made general of division for his services at Marengo. In 18or he became inspector-general of artillery, and in 5804 grand officer of the Legion of Honour, but was not made marshal. In i8o5 he fought at Ulm, and then became for five years governor of Dalmatia, where his beneficent regime was long remembered. In 18o8 he became duke of Ragusa, and in 1809 Napoleon summoned him to take part in the closing operations of the Austrian War, and made him governor-general of the Illyrian provinces of the empire. In July 1810 Marmont succeeded Massena in command in the north of Spain, and was wounded at Salamanca. He was hardly cured when, in April 1813 Napoleon gave him the command of a corps with which he served throughout the defensive campaign of 1814, until the last battle before Paris, from which he drew back his forces to the commanding position of Essonne, where he had 20,000 men. Mar
mont then took upon himself a political role which has been stig matized as treasonable, concluding a secret convention With the enemy. This act was never forgiven by Marmont's countrymen, and although made a peer of France and a major-general of the royal guard at the Restoration, he was never trusted. In July 183o he was ordered to put down any opposition to the ordi nances, and although opposed to the court policy he only gave up the attempt to suppress the revolution when it became clear that his troops were outmatched. The duc d'Angoulerne ordered him under arrest, fearing further treachery, but Marmont went into exile with the king, forfeiting his marshalate. He finally settled in Vienna, and became tutor to the duke of Reichstadt. He died at Venice on March 22, 1852. Marmont's Memoires are of great value for the military history of his time.
His works include Voyage en Hongrie, etc. (4 vols. 1837) ; Voyage en Sicile (1838) ; Esprit des institutions militaires' (1845) ; Memoires (8 volumes, 1856).