Home >> Encyclopedia-britannica-volume-15-maryborough-mushet-steel >> European Miniature Painting to I Ancient Medicine

Encyclopedia Britannica

European Miniature Painting
European Miniature Painting Portraits Of Living Persons Appear In Illuminated Manuscripts, Especially Of The I4th, 15th And I6th Centuries And In Many Notable Documents. They Reached A High Standard In France And The Netherlands. Hans Holbein The Younger Executed Small Portraits Of Very Fine And Dainty Technique, Such As Are ...

Experimental Morphology
Experimental Morphology The Actual Structure Of Any Organ In The Body Of An Animal Represents A Compromise; In Its Fundamental Plan It Is Determined By The Nature Of The Ancestors Of The Animal Of Which It Forms A Part, While The Details Are Determined By The Function Which It Carries ...

Factors
Factors The Standard Observations Carried Out At Any Meteorological Station Consist Of Measurements Of : (i) Pressure At The Time Of Observation, And The Change In Pressure During The Past Three Hours If A Barograph Is Available. (2) Temperature Of Dry Bulb And Wet Bulb Thermometers, So That Both Temperature ...

Federal District Of Mexico
Mexico, Federal District Of, A Territory Set Apart For The Independent And Exclusive Use Of The Mexican Federal Government, Occupying The South-eastern Part Of The Valley Of Mexico, And Taken From And Lying Within The State Of Mexico, Which Forms Its Boundaries On All Sides Except The South Where It ...

Foundations Of Mathematics
Mathematics, Foundations Of. No Proposition Of Mathematics Is Considered To Be Established Until It Has Been Proved—that Is To Say, Logically Deduced From Other Propositions Previously Established. But Obviously This Process Of Proof Must Begin Somewhere ; We Must Make Some Assumptions In Order To Start At All; And The ...

Francesco Morosini 1618 94
Francesco Morosini (1618-94) Was One Of The Greatest Cap Tains Of His Time. He Fought Against The Turks And The Pirates, And After Distinguishing Himself At The Battle Of Naxos In 165o He Was Appointed Commander-in-chief Of The Venetian Navy. He Conducted A Series Of Successful Campaigns Against The Turks, ...

Francis Davis 1846 1912 Millet
Millet, Francis Davis (1846-1912) , American Artist, Was Born At Mattapoisett (mass.), On Nov. 3, 1846. He Was A Drummer Boy With The Union Forces In The Civil War, Graduated From Harvard College In 1869, And In 1871 Entered The Royal Academy Of Fine Arts, Antwerp. In 1873 He Was ...

Francisco Espoz Y 1781 1836
Mina, Francisco Espoz Y (1781-1836), Spanish Guerrillero Leader And General, Was Born At Ydozin In Navarre On June 17, 1781. He Began Guerrilla Warfare Against The French Invaders In 1808. The National Government At Cadiz Gave Him Rank, And By The 7th Of September 1812, He Had Been Promoted To ...

Francisco Miranda
Miranda, Francisco (c. , Spanish American Soldier And Adventurer, Horn At Caracas, Venezuela. After Serving With The French In The American War Of Inde Pendence, He Began To Plot For The Independence Of Spanish America, Was Discovered, Fled To The United States And Thence To England. He Travelled To Austria, ...

Francisque Xavier Michel
Michel, Francisque Xavier , French Scholar, Was Born At Lyons On Jan. 18, 1809. He Edited The Works Of Many Mediaeval French Writers, And The French Government, Recognizing Their Value, Sent Him To England (1833) And Scotland (1837) To Continue His Researches There. In 1839 He Was Appointed Professor Of ...

Frank Andrew 1854 1925 Munsey
Munsey, Frank Andrew (1854-1925) , American Publisher And Newspaper Proprietor, Was Born At Mercer, Me., On Aug. 21, 1854. Educated In Public Schools, He Began Business In A Country Store, And Became Manager Of The Western Union Telegraph Office In Augusta, Maine. In 1882 He Went To New York City ...

Franz Mercy
Mercy, Franz, Freiherr Von, Lord Of Mandre And Col Lenburg (d. 1645), German General In The Thirty Years' War, Who Came Of A Noble Family Of Lorraine, Was Born At Longwy Between 1590 And 1598. From I6o6 To 163o He Was Engaged In The Imperial Service. After Distinguishing Himself At ...

Franz Van Mieris
Mieris, Franz Van, Called The Elder (1635-1681), Son Of Jan Van Mieris, And Chief Member Of A Family Of Leyden Painters, Was Born, According To Houbraken, At Leyden On April 16, 1635, And Died There On March 12, 168i. Franz Took Service With Abraham Torenvliet, A Glazier Who Kept A ...

Frederic 1830 1914 Mistral
Mistral, Frederic (1830-1914), Provencal Poet, Was Born At Maillane (bouches-du-rhone) On Sept. 8, 1830. In The Autobiographical Sketch Prefixed To The Isclo D'or (1876) He Tells Us, With Great Simplicity And Charm, All That Is Worth Knowing Of His Early Life. His Father Was A Prosperous Farmer, And His Mother ...

Friedrich Mesmer
Mesmer, Friedrich (or Franz) Anton '815), Austrian Doctor, From Whose Name The Word "mesmerism" Was Coined (see Hypnotism), Was Born At Weil, Near Constance, On May 23, 1733. He Studied Medicine At Vienna. Interested In Astrology, He Imagined That The Stars Exerted An Influence On Beings Living On The Earth. ...

Fulminate Of Mercury
Mercury, Fulminate Of. A Highly Explosive Corn Pound Used In Percussion Caps And Detonators. Substances Which Fulminate On Heating Or Gentle Percussion Have Been Known For A Long Time, But The First Of Which We Have Any Definite Chemical Knowledge Was Mercury Fulminate, A Substance First Made By E. C. ...

Gabriel Metsu
Metsu, Gabriel (163o-1667), Dutch Painter, Was The Son Of Jacob Metsu, A Painter Of Leyden, By His Third Wife Ja Comina Garnyers. According To Houbraken, Metsu Was Taught By Gerard Dow. He Was Registered Among The First Members Of The Painters' Corporation At Leyden; And He Was Still A Member ...

Gaspard 1746 1818 Monge
Monge, Gaspard (1746-1818), French Mathematician, The Inventor Of Descriptive Geometry, Was Born At Beaune On May 1o, 1746. He Was Educated First At The College Of The Oratorians At Beaune, And Then In Their College At Lyons. He Was A Draftsman In The Practical School Attached To The Military School ...

Gaston Camille Charles 1846
Maspero, Gaston Camille Charles (1846 1916), French Egyptologist, Was Born In Paris On June 23, 1846, His Parents Being Of Lombard Origin. He Was In His Second Year At The Ecole Normale In 1867 When He Met Mariette, Who Was Then In Paris As Commissioner For The Egyptian Section Of ...

General Medicine
Medicine, General. Since 1910 The Progress Of Medi Cine Has Been Much Influenced By The Four Years Of The War, Which, While Interfering With Steady Research, Brought With It Urgent Prob Lems, Caused Diseases Previously Rare Or Unrecognised To Become Matters Of Common Knowledge, And Produced Epidemics On An Enormous ...

Georg 1857 1936 Michaelis
Michaelis, Georg (1857-1936), German Statesman, Was Born On Sept. 7, 1857 At Haynau. He Studied Law And For Some Years Lectured At The University Of Tokyo. He Entered The Prus Sian Administration In 1879, And By 1909 Had Risen To The Grade Of Under-secretary Of State In The Prussian Ministry ...

George 1763 1804 Morland
Morland, George (1763-1804), English Painter Of Animals And Rustic Scenes, Was Born In London On June 26, 1763. His Father And Grandfather Were Both Artists, And His Mother Is Usually Identified With A Maria Morland, Who Exhibited At The Academy In 1785 And 1786. Morland Exhibited Sketches At The Royal ...

George 1852 1933 Moore
Moore, George (1852-1933), Novelist, Eldest Son Of George Henry Moore, M.p. For Mayo, And His Wife Mary Blake, Was Born At Moore Hall, Co. Mayo, On Feb. 24, 1852. He Was At School At Escott, But, Like Many Other Great Artists, Did Not Take Kindly Or Long To Formal Education. ...

George Gordon 1815 1872 Meade
Meade, George Gordon (1815-1872), American Soldier, Was Born Of American Parentage At Cadiz, Spain, On Dec. 31, 1815. He Graduated From West Point In 1835, And Served In Florida Against The Seminoles. Resigning From The Army In 1836 He Became A Civil Engineer And Constructor Of Railways, And Was Engaged ...

George Mason
Mason, George , American Statesman, Was Born In Fairfax County, Va., In 1725. His Colonial Ancestors Held Official Positions In The Civil And Military Service Of Virginia. Mason Was A Near Neighbour And A Lifelong Friend Of George Washington. His Large Estates And High Social Standing, Together With His Personal ...

George Meredith
Meredith, George British Novelist And Poet, Was Born At Portsmouth, Hants., On Feb. 12, 1828. About His Early Life Little Is Recorded, But There Is A Good Deal Of Quasi Autobiography, Derived Apparently From Early Associations And Possibly Antipathies, In Some Of His Own Novels, Notably Evan Harrington And Harry ...

George Wallace 1841 1912 Melville
Melville, George Wallace (1841-1912) , Ameri Can Arctic Explorer And Naval Engineer, Was Born In New York City On July 31, 1841, And Educated At The Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute. In 1861 He Entered The U.s. Navy As Third Assistant Engineer, And Served Throughout The Civil War. His First Venture Into ...

George William Mundelein
Mundelein, George William American Cardinal, Was Born In New York City On July 2, 1872. He Received His Education At Manhattan College And St. Vincent Seminary, Beatty, Pa., Subsequently Proceeding To Rome And Studying Theology At The Urban College Of The Propaganda In That City. He Was Ordained Priest On ...

Gerardus Mercator
Mercator, Gerardus [latinized Form Of Gerhard Kremer] (1512-1594), Flemish Mathematician And Geographer, Was Born At Rupelmonde, In Flanders, On March 5, 1512. He Studied At Bois-le-duc And At Louvain Where He Met Gemma Frisius, A Pupil Of Apian Of Ingolstadt, From Whom He Derived Much Of His Inclination To Cartography ...

Gerbert De Ii Montreuil
Montreuil, Gerbert De (ii. 13th Century), French Trouvere, Author Of The Roman De La Violette. He Dedicated His Poem (c. 1221) To The Countess Marie Of Ponthieu, Wife Of Simon, Count Of Dammartin And A Niece Of Philip Augustus. The Count Gerard De Nevers Of The Story Stakes His Domains ...

Giacomo 1791 1864 Meyerbeer
Meyerbeer, Giacomo (1791-1864), German Corn Poser, First Known As Jakob Meyer Beer, Was Born At Berlin Sept. 6, 1791' His Father, Herz Beer, Was A Banker; His Mother, Amalie (née Wulf), Was A Woman Of High Intellectual Culture; And Two Of His Brothers Distinguished Themselves In Astronomy And Literature. He ...

Gilbert 1866 Murray
Murray, Gilbert (1866- ) , British Classical Scholar, Was Born At Sydney, N.s.w., Jan. 2, 1866, But Left Australia At The Age Of I1. He Was Educated At Merchant Taylors' School, London, And St. John's College, Oxford. At Oxford He Won The Hertford And Ireland Scholarships (1885), The Craven Scholarship ...

Gilbert John Murray Kynyn
Minto, Gilbert John Murray Kynyn Mond Elliot, 4th Earl Of ( 1 84 5-1914 ) , Was Born In Lon Don On July 9,1845. He Was Educated At Eton And Trinity College, Cambridge, And Joined The Scots Guards In 1867. In 187o He Sent In His Papers And Went To ...

Giovanni 1816 1891 Morelli
Morelli, Giovanni (1816-1891), Italian Patriot And Art Critic, Born At Verona On Feb. 16, 1816, Was Educated First At Bergamo And Then At Aarau In Switzerland. At 18 He Commenced His University Career At Munich, Being Debarred As A Protestant From Entering Any Italian College, And Became The Pupil Of ...

Giovanni Battista Morgagni
Morgagni, Giovanni Battista , Italian Anatomist, Was Born On Feb. 25, 1682 At For11. After Graduating In 1701 At Bologna In Philosophy And Medicine, He Acted As Prosector To A. M. Valsalva (one Of The Distinguished Pupils Of Malpighi), Whom He Assisted In Preparing His Cele Brated Anatomy And Diseases ...

Giovanni Di Monte Corvino
Monte Corvino, Giovanni Di (c. 1247-1328), Franciscan Missionary, Traveller And Statesman, Founder Of The Earliest Roman Catholic Missions In India And China, And Arch Bishop Of Peking. In 1272 He Was Commissioned By The Emperor Michael Palaeologus, To Pope Gregory X., To Negotiate For The Reunion Of Greek And Latin ...

Giovanni Morone
Morone, Giovanni Italian Cardinal, Was Born On Jan. 25, 1509 At Milan, Where His Father, Count Ieronimo Morone (d. 1529), Was Grand Chancellor. His Father, Who Had Been Imprisoned For Opposing Encroachments On The Liberties Of Milan By Charles V. (whom He Afterwards Cordially Supported), Removed To Modena. The Son ...

Giuseppe 1805 1872 Mazzini
Mazzini, Giuseppe (1805-1872), Italian Patriot, Was Born On June 22, 1805, At Genoa. During Infancy And Childhood His Health Was Extremely Delicate ; But He Soon Began To Devour Books Of All Kinds And To Show Other Signs Of Great Intellectual Precocity. He Became A Student At The University Of ...

Gospel Of Matthew
Matthew, Gospel Of. It Is Of Course Possible That The Identification Is A Mistaken One. On The Assumption That It Is Correct, "matthew" (of Which The Probable Meaning Is "jehovah's Gift") Would Appear To Be The Christian Name Of Levi, Who Had Been Employed As A Tax-collector In The Service ...

Gospel Of St Matthew
Matthew, Gospel Of St. The Church For Which This Book Was Originally Written Appears To Have Been Composed For The Most Part Of Greek-speaking Jews, Who, Though Broken Completely With Orthodox Judaism, Still Retained The Jewish Viewpoint. For These Christians As For The Pharisee The End Of The Religious Life ...

Gouverneur Morris
Morris, Gouverneur American States Man, Was Born In The Old Morrisania Manor House, In What Is Now The City Of New York, On Jan. 31, 1752. He Graduated At King's College (now Columbia University) In 1768, Studied Law, And Was Admitted To The Bar In 1771. An Extreme Aristocrat In ...

Gulf Of Mexico
Mexico, Gulf Of, A Mediterranean Gulf Almost Sur Rounded By The Coasts Of The United States And Mexico, And Form Ing The Northern Division Of The Extension Westward Of The West Atlantic Trench (see Atlantic Ocean). Its Southern Boundary Is Defined By The Partly Submerged Ridge Which Extends Eastwards From ...

Hannah 1745 1833 More
More, Hannah (1745-1833), English Religious Writer, Was Born At Stapleton, Near Bristol, On Feb. 2, 1745. She May Be Said To Have Made Three Reputations In The Course Of Her Long Life : First, As A Clever Verse-writer And Witty Talker In The Circle Of Johnson, Reynolds And Garrick; Next, ...

Hans Memlinc
Memlinc, Hans (c. Flemish Painter, Whose Art Gave Lustre To Bruges In The Period Of Its Political And Com Mercial Decline. Memlinc Was A Skilled Artist Before He Settled At Bruges. Hans Memlinc Probably Served His Apprenticeship At Cologne, And Later Worked Under Roger Van Der Weyden. The Inventories Of ...

Helmuth Carl Bernhard Moltke
Moltke, Helmuth Carl Bernhard, Count Von (1800-189i), Prussian Field Marshal, For Thirty Years Chief Of The Staff Of The Prussian Army, The Greatest Strategist Of The Latter Half Of The 19th Century, And The Creator Of The Modern Method Of Directing Armies In The Field, Was Born On Oct. 26, ...

Helmuth Johannes Ludwig Von
Moltke, Helmuth Johannes Ludwig Von (1848-1916), German Soldier, Born In Gersdorf, Mecklenburg, May 23, 1848, Was Nephew Of The Famous Count Von Moltke. Becoming An Officer In 187o, In 1902 He Commanded The 1st Di Vision Of The Guards Corps, In 1904 Became Quartermaster-general, And Two Years Later Was Appointed ...

Henri 1852 1907 Moissan
Moissan, Henri (1852-1907), French Chemist, Was Born At Paris On Sept. 28, 1852. He Was Educated In Fremy's Laboratory And Attended Lectures By Sainte-clair, Deville And Debray. In 1879 He Was Appointed To A Junior Post In The Agronomic Institute, Paris, And Was Subsequently (1886) Pro Fessor Of Toxicology And ...

Henri Rene Albert Guy
Maupassant, Henri Rene Albert Guy De (1850-1893), I Rench Novelist And Poet, Was Born At The Château Of Miromesnil (seine-inferieure) On Aug. 5, 185o. His Grand Father, A Landed Proprietor Of A Good Lorraine Family, Bequeathed A Moderate Fortune To His Son, A Paris Stockbroker, Who Married Mile. Laure Lepoitevin. ...

Henry 1614 1687 More
More, Henry (1614-1687), English Philosopher Of The Cambridge Platonist School, Was Born At Grantham In 1614. Both His Father And His Mother, He Tells Us, Were "earnest Followers Of Calvin," But He Himself "could Never Swallow That Hard Doctrine." In 1631 He Was Admitted At Christ's College, Cambridge, About The ...

Henry 1822 1894 Morley
Morley, Henry (1822-1894), British Man Of Letters, Was Born In London On Sept. 15, 1822. He Was Sent To The Moravian School At Neuwied, Whose System Strongly Influenced His Subsequent Theories Of Education. After An Experiment In Medical Practice, Which Failed Through The Dishonesty Of His Partner, He Set Up ...

Henry Hart Milman
Milman, Henry Hart English Historian And Ecclesiastic, Third Son Of Sir Francis Milman, Bart., Physician To George Iii., Was Born In London On Nov. Io, 1791. He Was Educated At Eton And At Brasenose College, Oxford. He Gained The Newdigate Prize With A Poem On The Apollo Belvidere In 1812, ...

Henry I800 1885 Milne Edwards
Milne-edwards, Henry (i800-1885), French Zoologist, The Son Of An Englishman, Was Born In Bruges, Oct. 23, 1800, But Spent Most Of His Life In France. He Graduated In Medicine At Paris In 1823, But Devoted Himself To The Study Of The Lower Forms Of Animal Life. In 1841 He Was ...

Henry Medwall
Medwall, Henry (fl. 1490, The Earliest Known Writer Of An English Secular Play, Is Said On Good Authority To Have Been Well-born. The Date Of His Birth And The Circumstances Of His Youth And Education Are Unknown. The Earliest Reference To Him Is In Cardinal Morton's Register At Lambeth In ...

Herman 1819 1891 Melville
Melville, Herman (1819-1891), American Author, Was Born In New York City On Aug. 1, 1819. He Shipped As A Cabin Boy At The Age Of 18, Thus Being Enabled To Make His First Visit To England, And At 22 Sailed For A Long Whaling Cruise In The Pacific. After A ...

Hermann 1876 1931 Muller
Muller, Hermann (1876-1931), German Politician, Was Born May 18, 1876 At Mannheim. From 1899 To 1906 He Was Editor Of The Socialist Newspaper The Gorlitzer Volkszeitung, And From 1906 Onwards Was A Member Of The Directing Board Of The German Social Democratic Party. From 1916 To 1918 He Was A ...

History Of Mathematics
Mathematics, History Of. The Science Of Mathe Matics Had Its Origin In The Practical Needs Of Men For Number, Names And Simple Measures, And In Their Mental Thirst For Knowl Edge. Intuitively The Early Man Knew That A Straight Line Is The Shortest Path Between Two Points; He Took Pleasure ...

History Of Mission Fields
History Of Mission Fields The South Seas.—missionary Work In The Pacific Began With Magellan's Visit To The Philippines In 1521. Roman Catholic Mis Sionary Work Was Carried On From An Early Date In The Caroline Islands And Others Adjacent. Modern Protestant Effort Began With The Sending Of The London Missionary ...

History Of The Motor
History Of The Motor Car It Is Difficult To Assign Definite Dates For Events In The Progress Of The Automobile. Many Men Were Working On The Same Problems In Different Places. This Brief Outline Can Point Out Only The Trends And Major Developments. The Self-propelled Vehicle Dates Back To The ...

Honore Gabriel Riqueti Mirabeau
Mirabeau, Honore Gabriel Riqueti, Comte De (i749-1791), French Statesman, Was Born At Bignon, Near Nemours, On March 9, 1749. The Family Of Riquet, Or Riqueti, Originally Of The Little Town Of Digne, Won Wealth As Merchants At Marseilles, And In 157o Jean Riqueti Bought The Chateau And Seigniory Of Mirabeau, ...

Honore Mercier
Mercier, Honore (184o-1894), Canadian Lawyer And Statesman, Was The Son Of Jean Baptiste Mercier, Farmer, And Of Marie Kimener, His Wife. He Was Born At St. Athanase D'iberville On Oct. 15, 5840. Mercier Was Educated At The Jesuit College Of St. Mary, Montreal. Afterwards He Was Admitted To The Bar ...

Hudson 1853 1927 Maxim
Maxim, Hudson (1853-1927), American Inventor, Was Born At Orneville, Me., On Feb. 3, 1853, And Completed His Aca Demic Studies At Kent's Hill, Me. Though His Education Was But Slight, His Interest In Chemistry Led Him To Wide Reading And Ex Perimentation In The Subject While He Worked At Other ...

Hunyadi Matthias I
Matthias I., Hunyadi King Of Hun Gary, Also Known As Matthias Corvinus, Second Son Of Janos Hunyadi (q.v.) And Elizabeth Szilagyi, Was Born At Cluj (kolos Zvar), Transylvania, Probably On Feb. 23, 1440. He Shared In His Father's Campaigns When Only Twelve Years Of Age. In 1453 He Was Created ...

I Ancient Medicine
I. Ancient Medicine The First Records Of A Rational Or Scientific Medical System Are Greek. Active Operation By The 6th Century B.c. By The Middle Of The 5th Century They Were Important Elements In Greek Life. Much Of The Hippocratic Collection, Which Contains The Earliest As Well As The Best ...