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Encyclopedia Britannica

Massage
Massage, A Method Of Treating Stiffness Or Other Physical Conditions By Manipulating The Muscles And Joints, Practised From Time Immemorial In All Parts Of The World And Employed Extensively For Medical Purposes At The Present Time. Massage, As Now Practised, Includes Several Processes, Some Passive, Others Active. The Former Are ...

Massawa Or Massowah
Massawa Or Massowah, A Town On The African Coast Of The Red Sea, Chief Port Of The Italian Colony Of Eritrea, In 15° 36' N. And 28' E. Pop. (1931) 4,154 Including 654 Europeans. The Town Stands At The North End Of The Bay Of Massawa And Is Built Partly ...

Massinissa
Massinissa (c. 238-149 B.c.), King Of Massylian Or East Ern Numidia, Was Educated At Carthage. His Kingdom, Though Nominally Independent Of Carthage, Was Imbued To A Very Con Siderable Extent With Carthaginian Civilization ; Massinissa, Though A Barbarian At Heart, Had A Varnish Of Culture, And The Craft And Cunning ...

Mastaba
Mastaba, In Egyptian Architecture, A Rectangular Cut Stone Tomb, With Raking Sides And A Flat Roof, Usually Containing Three Chambers. In The First The Walls Were Sometimes Richly Decorated With Paintings And Had A Low Bench Of Stone On Which Incense Was Burnt. The Second, Containing The Serdab, Or Image ...

Master And Servant
Master And Servant. This Comprehensive Term In Cludes All Forms Of Occupation In Which A Person For Valuable Con Sideration Hires Out His Services In A Subordinate Capacity To Another For The Purpose Of Helping That Other In The Performance Of Some Duty Or Object For Which Assistance Is Either ...

Mastic Or Mastich
Mastic Or Mastich, A Resinous Exudation Obtained From The Lentisk, Pistacia Lentiscus, An Evergreen Shrub Of The Family Anacardiaceae. The Lentisk Or Mastic Plant Is Indigenous To The Mediterranean Coast Region From Syria To Spain, But Grows Also In Portugal, Morocco And The Canaries. The Production Of The Substance Has ...

Mastodon
Mastodon, A Name Given By Cuvier To Those Early F Ore Runners Of The Elephants (q.v.) Which Have Nipple-like Promi Nences On The Molar Teeth. The Generic Term Is Now Restricted By H. F. Osborn To A Single Species, Mastodon Americanus, The American Mastodon, But It Is Used Familiarly To ...

Match
Match. A Piece Of Inflammable Material, Such As Wood, Cardboard Or Waxed Thread, Provided With A Tip Which Ignites By Friction. From The Very Earliest Ages Some Means Of Bringing Fire Into Existence Has Been Of Primary Importance. During The Evolution Of Fire-producers, Other Methods Than That Of Friction— Both ...

Mate Or Paraguay Tea
Mate Or Paraguay Tea, The Dried Leaves Of Ilex Paraguay Ensis (and Some Other Species), An Evergreen Shrub Or Small Tree Belonging To The Same Genus As The Common Holly. The Leaves Are From 6 To 8 In. Long, Shortly Stalked, With A Somewhat Acute Tip And Finely Toothed At ...

Material Culture
Material Culture. Even Under Civilized Conditions A Great Part Of Man's Material Culture Is Directly Associated With His Primary Need, That Of Procuring Food, And His Progress In Many Other Directions Depends Upon The Measure Of His Success In This. The Old Classification Of Peoples Or Communities As Hunters, Herders ...

Materialism
Materialism In Philosophy, The Theory Which Regards All The Facts Of The Universe As Explainable In Terms Of Matter And Motion, And In Particular Explains All Psychical Processes By Physical And Chemical Changes In The Nervous System (from Lat. Materia, Matter). It Is Thus Opposed Both To Natural Realism And ...

Maternity And Infant Welfare
Maternity And Infant Welfare. After The World War All Civilized Countries Realized The Importance Of Decreasing The High Death-rate Among Women At Childbirth And Among Infants Under One Year Of Age. In Great Britain There Is A Considerable Body Of New Legislation Intended To Supplement Welfare Agencies And To Provide ...

Mathematical Instruments
Mathematical Instruments. The Term "mathe Matical Instruments" In Its Widest Significance Includes Various Instruments Used In Drawing, Surveying, Astronomy, Etc. We Will Here Consider Certain Instruments Designed To Perform Operations Involving Computation And Measurement. Instruments And Machines Concerned With The Mechanical Performance Of Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, Division, Etc., Are Described ...

Mathematical Models
Mathematical Models. The Child's Box Of Bricks Is Probably Mankind's Earliest Acquaintance Or Contact With Mathematical Conceptions. The Concrete Forms Of The Cube Which Go To Make Up The Puzzle Pictures Of The Nursery, Or The More Complete Selection Of Geometrical Solids Comprising Cubes, Prisms And Cylinders Which Make Up ...

Mathematical Societies And Periodi
Mathematical Societies And Periodi Cals. The Number Of Mathematical Societies, Clubs, And Circles Organized Since The Early One At Hamburg In 1690 Is Exceedingly Large, But The Number Of Mathematical Periodicals Since The Seven Teenth Century Is Very Much Larger. Important Mathematical Work Of A Country Is Often Given In ...

Mathematical Tables
Mathematical Tables. The Primary Purpose Of Mathematical Tables Is To Render The Work Of The Professional Computer In Mathematics, Engineering, Astronomy, Statistics, Etc., Less Laborious Than It Would Otherwise Be. The Arrangement And Typography Must Be Such That The Minimum Strain Is Imposed On The Computer's Eyes, For He May ...

Mathieu 1584 1656 Mole
Mole, Mathieu (1584-1656), French Statesman, Son Of Edouard Mole (d. 1614), Who Was For A Time Procureur General, Was Educated At The University Of Orleans. Admitted Conseiller In 16°6, He Was President Aux Requites In 161o, Pro Cureur-general In Succession To Nicolas De Bellievre In 1614, And He Took Part ...

Matilda
Matilda Countess Or Margravine Of Tuscany, Popularly Known As The Great Countess, Was Descended From A Noble Lombard Family. Her Great-grandfather, Athone Of Can Ossa, Had Been Made Count Of Modena And Reggio By The Em Peror Otto I., And Her Grandfather Had, In Addition, Acquired Mantua, Ferrara And Brescia. ...

Matilda 1102 1167
Matilda (1102-1167), Queen Of England And Empress, Daughter Of Henry I. Of England, By Matilda, His First Wife. In 1109 She Was Betrothed To The Emperor-elect, Henry V., And Was Sent To Germany, But The Marriage Was Delayed Till Her Husband Died In 1125, Leaving Her Childless; And, Since Both ...

Matriarchy
Matriarchy. Tales Are Still Told Of Villages (always Outside The Ken Of The Narrator) Where Only Women Dwell, Whose Population Is Maintained By The Admission Annually Of One Male Who Is Put To Death When His Procreative Task Is Done. Did Such Exist, Therein Might Be Found That Combination Of ...

Matsys
Matsys (massys Or Metzys ) , Quentin Flemish Artist, Was Born At Louvain Where He Learned The Trade Of A Blacksmith. During The Greater Part Of The 15th Century, The Centres In Which The Painters Of The Low Countries Most Congre Gated Were Bruges, Ghent And Brussels. Towards The Close ...

Matthew Fontaine Maury
Maury, Matthew Fontaine Ameri Can Naval Officer And Hydrographer, Was Born In Spottsylvania County, Virginia. He Was Educated At Harpeth Academy, And In 1825 Entered The Navy As Midshipman, Circumnavigating The Globe In The "vincennes" During A Cruise Of Four Years (1826-30). In 1839 He Met With An Accident Which ...

Matthew Of Paris
Matthew Of Paris (d. 1259), English Monk And Chronicler Known To Us Only Through His Voluminous Writings. He May Have Studied At Paris In His Youth, But The Earliest Fact Which He Records Of Himself Is His Admission As A Monk At St. Albans In The Year I 217. His ...

Matthias 1557 1619
Matthias (1557-1619), Roman Emperor, Son Of The Em Peror Maximilian Ii. And Maria, Daughter Of The Emperor Charles V., Was Born In Vienna, On Feb. 24, 1557, And Educated By The Diplomatist 0. G. De Busbecq (q.v.), He Was Invited In 1577, Soon After His Father's Death, To Assume The ...

Matting
Matting, A General Term Embracing Many Coarse Woven Or Plaited Fibrous Materials Used For Covering Floors Or Furniture, For Hanging As Screens, For Wrapping Up Heavy Merchandise And For Other Miscellaneous Purposes. Perforated And Otherwise Pre Pared Rubber, As Well As Wire-woven Material, Are Also Largely Utilized For Door And ...

Maule
Maule, A Province Of Central Chile, Bounded On The North By Talca, On The East By Argentina, On The South By Nuble And Concepcion And On The West By The Pacific. Pop. (1930) Was Area, Before The Annexation Of Linares In 1928, 5,685 Sq. Miles. The Western Part Of Maule ...

Maundy Thursday
Maundy Thursday, The Thursday Before Easter. Maundy Thursday Is Sometimes Known As Sheer Or Chore Thurs Day, Either In Allusion, It Is Thought, To The "shearing" Of Heads And Beards In Preparation For Easter, Or More Probably In The Word's Middle English Sense Of "pure," In Allusion To The Ablu ...

Mauretania
Mauretania, The Ancient Name Of The North-western Angle Of The African Continent, Bounded Towards The South By The Atlas Range, And Extending Along The Coast To The Atlantic As Far As The Point Where That Chain Descends To The Sea, In About 3o° N. Lat. (strabo P. 825). The Gaetulians ...

Maurice
Maurice Elector Of Saxony, Elder Son Of Henry, Duke Of Saxony, Of The Albertine Branch Of The Wettin Family, Was Born At Freiberg On March 21, 1521. In Jan. 1541 He Married Agnes, Daughter Of Philip, Landgrave Of Hesse. In That Year He Became Duke Of Saxony By His Father's ...

Maurice Of Nassau
Maurice Of Nassau, Prince Of Orange (1567-1625), The Second Son Of William The Silent, By Anna, Only Daughter Of The Famous Maurice, Elector Of Saxony, Was Born At Dillenburg. At The Time Of His Father's Assassination In 1584 He Was Being Educated At The University Of Leyden, At The Expense ...

Maurists
Maurists, A Congregation Of French Benedictines Called After St. Maurus (d. 565), A Disciple Of St. Benedict And The Legendary Introducer Of The Benedictine Rule And Life Into Gaul. At The End Of The 16th Century The Benedictine Monasteries Of France Had Fallen Into A State Of Disorganization And Relaxation ...

Mauritania
Mauritania, A Colony Of French West Africa, Bounded On The West By The Atlantic Ocean And The Spanish Rio De Oro, On The North By The Territories Of South Algeria, On The East By French Sudan And On The South By Senegal. The Area Is 670,000 Sq.km. And The Population ...

Mauritius
Mauritius, An Island And British Colony In The Indian Ocean (known Whilst A French Possession As The Ile De France). It Lies Between 57° 18' And 49' E., And 19° 58' And 2o° 32' S., 55o M. E. Of Madagascar. The Island Is Irregularly Elliptical— Somewhat Triangular—in Shape, And Is ...

Mavrocordat Or Mavrogordato Mavrocordato
Mavrocordato, Mavrocordat Or Mavrogordato, The Name Of A Family Of Phanariot Greeks, Distinguished In The History Of Turkey, Rumania And Modern Greece. The Family Was Founded By A Merchant Of Chios, Whose Son Alexander Mavrocordato (c. 1636-1709), Became Dragoman To The Sultan In 1673, And Drew Up The Treaty Of ...

Max Friedrich Maximilian Muller
Muller, Max [friedrich Maximilian] (1823-190o), Anglo-german Orientalist And Comparative Philologist, Was Born At Dessau On The 6th Of December 1823, Being The Son Of Wilhelm Miiller (1794-1827), The German Poet, Celebrated For His Phil-hellenic Lyrics, Who Was Ducal Librarian At Dessau. Mendelssohn, Who Was Max Muller's Godfather, Dissuaded Him From ...

Maxim Silencer
Maxim Silencer. A Device, Invented In 1908 By Hiram Percy Maxim, An American, For Suppressing The Sound Of Discharge Of Firearms. Attached To Any Tight-breech Firearm, Such As A Rifle, It Checked The Sudden Liberation Of The Powder Gases Into The Atmosphere By Imparting A Whirling Motion To Them, Which ...

Maxima And Minima
Maxima And Minima, In Mathematics. By The Maxi Mum Or Minimum Value Of An Expression Or Quantity Is Meant Primarily The "greatest" Or "least" Value That It Can Receive. In General, However, There Are Points At Which Its Value Ceases To In Crease And Begins To Decrease ; Its Value ...

Maximilian
Maximilian (ferdinand Maximilian) (1832-1867), Em Peror Of Mexico, Was Born In Vienna On July 6, 1832, The Second Son Of Archduke Francis Charles, And Brother Of The Emperor Francis Joseph. After An Excellent Education, He Entered The Navy And As First In Command Was Largely Responsible For Its Rehabilita Tion, ...

Maximilian I 1459 1519
Maximilian I. (1459-1519), Roman Emperor, Son Of The Emperor Frederick Iii. And Leonora, Daughter Of Edward, King Of Portugal, Born At Vienna Neustadt On March 22, On Aug. 18, 1477, He Was Married At Ghent To Mary, Who Had Inherited Burgundy And The Netherlands From Her Father Charles The Bold, ...

Maximilian I Maximilian Joseph
Maximilian I. (maximilian Joseph) ( I , King Of Bavaria, The Son Of The Count Palatine Frederick Of Zwei Briicken-birkenfeld, Was Born May 27, 1756. He Took Service In 1777 As A Colonel In The French Army, And Rose Rapidly To The Rank Of Major-general. From 1782 To 1789 He ...

Maximilian Ii 1811 1864
Maximilian Ii. (1811-1864) , King Of Bavaria, Son Of King Louis I. And Of Theresa Of Saxe-hildburghausen, Was Born On Nov. 28, 181i. After Studying At Gottingen And Berlin And Travel Ling In Germany, Italy And-greece, He Was Introduced By His Father Into The Council Of State (1836). As Crown ...

Maximilian Ii 527 1576
Maximilian Ii. ( 527-1576), Roman Emperor, Was The Eldest Son Of The Emperor Ferdinand I. By His Wife Anne, Daughter Of Ladislaus, King Of Hungary And Bohemia, And Was Born In Vienna On July 31, 1527. Educated Principally In Spain, He Gained Some Experience Of Warfare During The Campaign Of ...

Maxwell
Maxwell, The Name Of A Scottish Family, Members Of Which Have Held The Titles Of Earl Of Morton, Earl Of Nithsdale, Lord Maxwell, And Lord Herries. The Name Is Taken Probably From Maccuswell, Or Maxwell, Near Kelso, Whither The Family Migrated From England C. I Ioo. Sir Herbert Maxwell Won ...

Mayaguez
Mayaguez, A City On The West Coast Of Porto Rico. Its Population By The Census Of 193o Was 37,060, While The Popula Tion Of The Municipal District Was 58,27o. The Population Of The City In Probably Exceeded 40,000. Mayaguez Was Founded In 1763, But Was Under The Jurisdiction Of San ...

Mayenne
Mayenne, A Department Of North-western France, Bounded On The North By Manche And Orne, East By Sarthe, South By Maine-et-loire And West By Ille-et-vilaine. Area, 1,986 Sq. Miles. Pop. (1931) The Department Forms The Eastern Portion Of The Armorican System Of Palaeozoic Rocks, With Zones Of Granite Running East And ...

Mayflower
Mayflower, The Vessel Which Carried From Southampton, England, To Plymouth, Mass., The Pilgrims Who Established The First Permanent Colony In New England. It Was Of About I8o Tons Burden, And In Company With The "speedwell" Sailed From Southampton On Aug. 5, 162o, The Two Having On Board 120 Pilgrims. After ...

Mayo
Mayo, A Western County Of Ireland, In The Province Of Connaught, Bounded North And West By The Atlantic Ocean, North East By Sligo, East By Roscommon, South-east And South By Gal Way. The Area Is 1,380,390 Acres, Or About 2,157 Sq.m., The County Being The Third Largest In Ireland. Pop. ...

Mayor
Mayor, In Modern Times The Title Of A Municipal Officer Who Discharges Judicial And Administrative Functions. The French Form Of The Word Is Maire. In Germany The Corresponding Title Is Burgermeister, In Italy Podesth, In Spain Alcalde And In Scotland Provost. "mayor" Had Originally A Much Wider Significance. Among The ...

Mayor Of The Palace
Mayor Of The Palace. The Office Of Mayor Of The Palace Was An Institution Peculiar To The Franks Of The Merovin Gian Period. A Landowner Who Did Not Manage His Own Estate Placed It In The Hands Of A Steward (major), Who Superintended The Working Of The Estate And Collected ...

Mazanderan
Mazanderan, A Province Of Persia, Lying Between The Caspian Sea And The Elburz Range And Bounded E. By The Province Of Astarabad And W. By Gilan; About 200 M. Long By 6o M. Mazanderan, Like Gilan, Comprises Two Distinct Natural Regions, Presenting The Sharpest Contrasts. The Northern Portion Consists Of ...

Meadowlark
Meadowlark (sturnella Magna), A Well-known North American Bird Which, Like The Skylark (alauda Arvensis) Of Europe, Frequents Meadows And Sometimes Sings On The Wing. It Is About 11 In. Long, With Brown Back, Yellow Breast And Black Throat. The Meadowlark Is Not Related To The True Larks, Which Are Represented ...

Mean
Mean. The Adjective "mean" Is Chiefly Used In The Sense Of "average," As In Mean Temperature, Mean Birth Or Death Rate, Etc. In Astronomy (q.v.) The "mean Sun" Is A Fictitious Sun Which Moves At A Uniform Rate In The Celestial Equator And Has Its Right Ascension Always Equal To ...

Meaning
Meaning. Speaking Broadly Any Thing Or Action Which Sug Gests Another Without Actually Being A Picture Or Copy Of It May Be Said To Have Meaning. In So Far As It Has Meaning It Is Called A Mark Or A Sign Or A Symbol. A Portrait Depicts A Person, A ...

Measles
Measles (morbilli, Rubeola), An Acute Infectious Disease Occurring Mostly In Children, And Possibly Caused By A Filter Passing Virus (q.v.). The Course Of The Disease Is As Follows. After Exposure To Infection, For From Eight To Twelve Days There Is An Incubation Period Unaccompanied By Evident Symptoms. Then Follows The ...

Measures And Weights
Measures And Weights. This Subject May Be Most Conveniently Discussed Under Two Headings—i. Scientific And Ii. Commercial. The Scientific Basis Of The Systems Of Units Employed Is Also Dealt With In The Article Physical Units And The Unit Of Time Is Discussed In The Article Bearing That Title. I. In ...

Meat
Meat, In The Narrowest Sense, The Flesh Of Veal, Beef, Pork, Lamb And Mutton Producing Animals. In A Broader Sense, Meat Includes The Flesh Of Other Animals Such As Fowls And Birds. In A Still Broader Sense, Meat Includes All The Parts Of The Animal Body Used As Food. This ...

Meat Cookery
Meat Cookery. Butcher's Meat May Be Roasted, Baked, Fried, Grilled (broiled) Or Stewed. It May Also Be Combined With Pastry (q.v.) In Meat Pies, Puddings, Vol-au-vents, Etc.; With Cereals, Vegetables (see Cereals, Vegetable Cookery And Pulse) ; And Used In Soups (q.v.). Boiled Meats .which Are To Be Used As ...

Meat Trade
Meat Trade. The Principal Meat-exporting Countries Are Argentina, Australia, New Zealand And Uruguay. The Total Brazil Exported 24,183 Tons Of Beef In 1927. Canada Exports Live Cattle And Sheep To The United States And In 1927 Also Sent 22,979 Tons Of Beef To That Country. To Great Britain In The ...

Meaux
Meaux, A Town Of Northern France, Capital Of An Arrondisse Ment In The Department Of Seine-et-marne, And Chief Town Of The Agricultural Region Of Brie, 28 M. E.n.e. Of Paris By Rail. Pop. (1931) 12,965. In The Roman Period Meaux Was The Capital Of The Meldi, A Small Gallic Tribe, ...

Mecca
Mecca (arab, Makkah), The Chief Town Of The Hejaz In Arabia And The Great Holy City Of Islam. It Is Situated About 45 M. Due E. Of Jidda, Its Red Sea Port, And About Half Way Be Tween The Gulf Of Akaba And Bab-el-mandeb. The City Lies In A Hollow ...

Mechanical Drawing
Mechanical Drawing: See Drawing, Engineering. Mechanical Engineer. By The Beginning Of The 19th Century The Development Of The Steam Engine Had Resulted In A Large Increase In The Size And Number Of Machines In Operation And The Factory System Was Beginning To Appear. The Millwright And Smith Were Not Competent ...

Mechanics
Mechanics. This Branch Of Applied Mathematics Deals With The Motions Of Bodies; With The Forces By Which Those Motions Are Conditioned, And With The Balance Of Forces On A Body At Rest. The Word Implies A Connection With Machinery (gr. Anxavn) ; But This And Other Practical Applications Are To-day ...