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Encyclopedia Britannica

Mistletoe
Mistletoe (viscum Album), A Species Of Viscum, Of The Family Loranthaceae (q.v.). The Whole Genus Is Parasitical, And Contains About 20 Species, Widely Distributed In The Warmer Parts Of The Old World ; But Only The Mistletoe Proper Is A Native Of Europe. It Forms An Evergreen Bush, About 4 ...

Mite
Mite, A Name Applied To An Order Of Small Arachnida, And To A Coin Of Slight Value. The Coin Was Originally A Flemish Copper Coin Worth One-third Or, A Smaller Fraction Of The Flemish Penning, Penny. It Is An Expression In English For A Coin Of The Smallest Value, From ...

Mithra Mithras Mithres
Mithras (mithres, Mithra), A God, Mentioned In Sanskrit And Old Persian Documents And Thus Probably Older Than The Separation Of The Iranian Stock From The Aryan Invaders Of India. (see India, History; Persia, History.) History.—although Mentioned By Greek Writers, Particularly Of Hellenistic Date, As An Important Persian Deity, His History ...

Mithradates
Mithradates, Less Correctly Mithridates, A Persian Name Derived From Mithras (q.v.), The Sun-god, And The Indo European Root Da, "to Give," I.e., "given By Mithras." The Name Occurs Also In The Forms Mitradates (herod. I. O) And Meher Dates (tac. Ann. Xii. Io). It Was Borne By A Large Number ...

Mithradates Iii
Mithradates Iii. Murdered His Father Phraates Iii. About 57 B.c., With The Assistance Of His Brother Orodes. He Was Made King Of Media, And Waged War Against His Brother, But Was Soon Deposed On Account Of His Cruelty. He Took Refuge With Gabinius, The Roman Proconsul Of Syria. He Advanced ...

Mithradates Vi
Mithradates Vi. Eupator, Called The Great, A Boy Of Eleven, Now Succeeded His Father. Alarmed At The Attempts Made Upon His Life By His Mother, He Fled To The Mountains And Was For Many Years A Hunter. In Iii He Returned To Sinope, Threw His Mother Into Prison, And Put ...

Mitre
Mitre, A Liturgical Head-dress Of The Historic Churches, Gen Erally Proper To Bishops. The Word Is Derived Through The Latin From The Greek Pirpa, A Head-band Or Head-dress. In The Roman Catholic Church Its Actual Form Is That Of A Sort Of Folding Cap Consisting Of Two Halves Which, When ...

Mnemonics
Mnemonics, The General Name Applied To Devices For Aiding The Memory. Such Devices Are Also Described As Memoria Technica. The Principle Is To Enable The Mind To Reproduce A Rela Tively Unfamiliar Idea, And Specially A Series Of Dissociated Ideas, By Connecting It, Or Them, In Some Artificial Whole, The ...

Moab
Moab, The Name Of An Ancient People Of Palestine Who In Habited A District East Of The Jordan And The Dead Sea, Lying North Of Edom And South Of Ammon (q.v.). The National Traditions Of The Israelites (see Jews) Recognize A Close Relationship Between Moab And Ammon, "sons" Of Lot, ...

Moallaqat
Mo`allaqat (or Mv`allaq?t). Al-moiallaqat Is The Title Of A Group Of Seven Longish Arabic Poems, Which Have Come Down To Us From The Time Before Islam. The Name Signifies "the Suspended" (pl.), The Traditional Explanation Being That These Poems Were Hung Up By The Arabs On Or In The Kaeba ...

Mobile
Mobile, A City Of South-western Alabama, U.s.a., At The Head Of Mobile Bay On The Gulf Of Mexico (3o M. Long And 8 M. Wide) ; County Seat Of Mobile County. It Is On Federal High Ways 45 And Go; Has A Municipal Airport; And Is Served By The Alabama, ...

Mocenigo
Mocenigo, The Name Of A Noble And Ancient Venetian Family Which Included Many Doges, Statesmen And Soldiers. Tommaso Mocenigo (1343-1423) Commanded The Crusading Fleet In The Expedition To Nicopolis In 1396, And Also Won Battles Against The Genoese. While Venetian Ambassador At Cremona He Was Elected Doge (1414), And He ...

Mode Of Formation Of
Mode Of Formation Of The Image In The Microscope We May Take It That The Way In Which A Lens Forms The Image Of A Luminous Object Is Understood And Generally Accepted. The Formation Of The Image Of An Illuminated Non-luminous Object Requires Consideration, However, Since The Light Reaching The ...

Models And Model Making
Models And Model-making. The Making Of Models Is One Of The Oldest Hobbies Of Mankind. The Egyp Tians, For Instance, Believed That The Human Spirit, After Death, Was Capable Of Travelling On Land, But Required Assistance Across The Waters Of The Nile, So They Buried With Their Dead A Model ...

Modena
Modena (ancient Mutina), City, Emilia, Italy, Capital Of The Province Of Modena And Seat Of An Archbishop, 31 M. E.s.e. With A Faculty Of Physical And Mathematical Science. Commerce Is Chiefly Agricultural. Modena Is The Point At Which The Railway To Mantua And Verona Diverges From That Between Milan And ...

Modern Masks And Their
Modern Masks And Their Uses Our Civilized World Has Neglected And Forgotten The Use Of Masks And It Is Only In This Century That The Interest In Them Has Revived. We Are Here Concerned Solely With Modern Masks As The Products Of Artists' Imagination, Taste And Skill—masks That Have Quality ...

Modern Missions
Modern Missions Early Movements. (i) Roman Catholic.—modern Missions Begin With The New World-outlook To Which The Renaissance, The Reformation, And The Discovery Both Of The Passage To India By The Cape Of Good Hope And Of The American Continent All Con Duced. The Outlook Of Christendom Was Magically Changed. No ...

Modern Museum Planning
Modern Museum Planning Originally Museums Were Thought Of, Planned, And Built As Storehouses For Specimens, But With The Recent, Almost Complete Constructive Educational Programme Extending To The Schools And Many Types Of Civic Organizations. It Supplies Loan Collections Of Specimens, Sends Out Lecturers, Furnishes Motion Pictures And Other Lecture Material ...

Modern Tendencies In Applied
Modern Tendencies In Applied Art. No Exact Date Can Mark The Beginning Of The Modern Movement In Applied Art. Whenever Men Grew Tired Of Reproducing The Decora Tive Formulae Of The Periods Preceding The Industrial Revolution And Turned To The Creation Of New Forms And New Motives, Then And There ...

Modernism
Modernism. This Term Has Been Used Since The Second Decade Of The Twentieth Century (at Least As Early As 1914) To Describe The Form Which The Broad Church Or Liberal Church Movement Has Taken In The Church Of England. The Word Mod Ernism Had Been Used On The Continent During ...

Moesia
Moesia, A District Inhabited By A Thracian People, Bounded On The South By The Mountain Ranges Of Haemus And Scardus, On The West By The Drinus, On The North By The Danube And On The East By The Euxine. Some, However, Place The Boundary Much Farther West. Each Was Governed ...

Mogador
Mogador (es-sueira), The Most Southern Seaport On The Atlantic Coast Of Morocco, In 31° 5o' N., 9° 20' W., Chief Town Of The Controle Civil Of Chiadma. The Town Stands From Io To 20 Ft. Above High Water On A Projecting Ridge Of Calcareous Sand Stone. In Certain States Of ...

Mohair
Mohair, The Hair Of A Variety Of Goat Originally Inhabiting The Regions Of Asiatic Turkey Of Which Angora Is The Centre, Whence The Animal Is Known As The Angora Goat. The Typical Mohair Fibre Is 7 To 8in. Long, Very Lustrous Owing To Its Physical Structure (which Although Akin To ...

Mohammed Ahmed Ibn Seyyid
Mohammed Ahmed Ibn Seyyid Abdullah (1848-1885), Sudanese Tyrant, Known As "the Mandi," Was Born In Dongola. His Family, Known As Excellent Boat-builders, Claimed To Be Ashraf (or Sherifs), Descendants Of The Prophet. His Father Was A Fiki Or Religious Teacher, And Mohammed Ahmed Devoted Himself To Religious Studies. He Went ...

Mohammed Ali 1769 1849
Mohammed Ali (1769-1849), Founder Of The Present Royal House Of Egypt, Born At Kavala, A Small Seaport On The Frontier Of Thrace And Macedonia. His Father, An Albanian, Was An Aga, A Small Yeoman Farmer, And He Himself Began Life As A Petty Official And Trader In Tobacco. In 1798 ...

Mohammed Or Muhammad Or
Mohammed Or Muhammad Or Mahomet, Founder Of The Religious System Called In Europe Mohammedan Ism, And By Himself Islam Or Hanifism. He Died, According To The Ordinary Synchronism, On June 7, 632 (12 Rabia, A.h. I I ), And His Birthday Was Either 63 Or 65 Years Earlier. A Member ...

Mohammedan Architecture
Mohammedan Architecture. When In A Vic Torious Advance The Arab Followers Of Mohammed Subdued The Old Civilized Nations Of Asia And Africa, Persians, Turks, Byzan Tines, Syrians And Copts, Their Own Civilization Was Not Yet Much Developed And In Many Respects Dependent On Those Of The Neigh Bouring Countries; But ...

Mohammedan Art
Mohammedan Art. At The Death Of The Prophet Mo Hammed In 632, His Conquering Bedouin Hosts Already Stood On The Frontiers Of The Highly Civilized Empires Of Byzantium And Persia. During The Previous Four Centuries These Empires Had Passed Through Great Vicissitudes, And Of The Tradition Of Ancient Hellas But ...

Mohammedan Campaigns
Mohammedan Campaigns. Among The Military Cataclysms Which Have Changed The Course Of World-history On The Largest Scale, None Is So Little Known To Us In Detail As The Outburst Of The First Mohammedan Invaders From Their Arabian Deserts. That They Smashed In A Few Years The Old Sassanian Kingdom Of ...

Mohammerah
Mohammerah, A Town And Port Of South-west Persia Situated In Lat. 3o° 25' Long. 48° 1o' On The Right Bank Of The Karun River (q.v.) At The Point Where It Enters The Shatt Al Arab (q.v.). Until The Beginning Of The 19th Century The Old Village Of The Same Name ...

Mohmands
Mohmands, A Pathan (afghan) Tribe Holding About 1,200sq.m. Of Hilly Country N.w. Of Peshawar, In The North-west Frontier Province Of India. This Tract Is Hot, Infertile And Almost Treeless, The Hills Being Sparsely Covered With Low Scrub, Stunted Palms And Coarse Grass. Water Is Scarce In Summer, Yet The Low ...

Mohur
Mohur, A Persian Gold Coin, Used In India From The 16th Century. Between 1835 And 1891 A Gold Coin, Also Called A "mohur," Was Struck By The Government Of British India And Was Of The Nominal Value Of 15 Rupees. On The Establishment Of A Gold Standard In India In ...

Moldavia
Moldavia, An Autonomous Republic Of The Russian S.f.s.r., Created In 1925. Area 8,288 Sq.km. Pop. (1926) 567,306. It Is Situated On The Left Bank Of The Dniester River, In The Ukrainian S.s.r. Between 48° 12' And 46° 32' N. And 28° 3o' And 3o° O6' E. Autonomy Was Granted To ...

Moliere 1622 1673
Moliere (1622-1673), The Name Taken By The Great French Actor And Dramatist, Jean Baptiste Poquelin. He Was Born In Paris, Probably In Jan. 1622. His Certificate Of Baptism Is Dated Jan. 15 Of That Year, In The Parish Of St. Eustache. The Place Of His Birth Is Disputed. Part Of ...

Mollusca
Mollusca. A Large Group Of Invertebrate Animals Con Stituting A Large Subdivision Or Phylum Of The Animal Kingdom And Comprising Such Forms As Land And Aquatic Snails And Slugs, Oysters, Mussels, Cuttlefish And Squids. The Group Is Very Large, Containing Over 6o,000 Living Species, And, Judged By Its Distribu Tion, ...

Molly Maguires
Molly Maguires, An Irish American Secret Society Which Maintained Numerous Branches In The Anthracite Coal Regions Of Pennsylvania, U.s.a., From 1854 To 1877, And Perhaps Later. The Name Was Imported From Ireland, Where It Had Been Used To Designate One Of The Ribbon Societies That Devoted Its Energies To Intimidating ...

Moloch Or Molech
Moloch Or Molech (in Hebrew, With The Doubtful Ex Ception Of I Kings Xi. 7, Always "the Molech"), The Name Or Title Of The Divinity Which The Men Of Judah In The Last Ages Of The Kingdom Were Wont To Propitiate By The Sacrifice Of Their Own Children. The Hebrew ...

Moluccas Or Spice Islands
Moluccas Or Spice Islands (dutch, Molukken), A Name Which In Its Wider Sense Includes All The Islands Of The Malay Archipelago Between Celebes On The West, New Guinea On The East, Timor On The South, And The Open Pacific Ocean On The North. They Are Thus Distributed Over An Area ...

Molybdenite
Molybdenite, A Mineral Consisting Of Molybdenum Di Sulphide, It Closely Resembles Graphite In Appearance, But May Readily Be Distinguished From This By Its Greater Density (4-7) And By Its Behaviour Before The Blowpipe. Crystals Have The Form Of Six-sided Plates Or Scales, But They Are Never Sharply Defined, And Their ...

Molybdenum
Molybdenum (symbol Mo, Atomic Number 42, Atomic Weight 96). Pure Compact Molybdenum Is A Silvery White Metal, Softer Than Steel And Quite Malleable. Its Melting Point Is Very High, Probably 2,500°c., Whilst Its Tensile Strength When Drawn Into Wire, Is About Half That Of Tungsten Or Steel Wire Of The ...

Mombasa
Mombasa, The Chief Port Of Kenya Colony, East Africa, In 4' S. ; 43' E. And 150 M. North Of Zanzibar. It Is Built On A Coralline Island Situated At The Mouth Of A Deep Arm Of The Sea. It Had A Population (1921) Of 36,846, Of Whom 656 Were ...

Monaco
Monaco, A Sovereign Principality On The Mediterranean Coast, 9 Rn. E. Of Nice, Bounded On All Sides By The French Depart Ment Of Alpes-maritimes. Pop. (1923) 22,153 ; Area .6 Sq. Miles. The Phoenicians, And After Them The Greeks, Had A Temple On The Monaco Headland, To Heracles, Surnamed By ...

Monaghan
Monaghan, A County Of Ireland In The Province Of Ulster, Bounded East By Armagh, South-east By Louth, South By Meath, South-west By Cavan, West By Fermanagh, And North By Tyrone. Area 319,741 Ac., Or About 496 Sq. Miles. Pop. (1926) The North-western Part Is Included In The Great Central Plain ...

Monarchianism
Monarchianism, A Theological Term Designating The View Taken By Those Christians Who, Within The Church, Towards The End Of The 2nd Century And During The 3rd, Opposed The Doc Trine Of An Independent Personal Subsistence Of The Logos, And Af Firmed The Sole Deity Of God The Father. The Representatives ...

Monarchy
Monarchy, Strictly, The Undivided Sovereignty Or Rule Of A Single Person. (fr. Monarchie, From Lat. Monarchic, From The Gr. Yovos Alone, Itpxi Rule.) Hence The Term Is Applied To States In Which The Supreme Authority Is Vested In A Single Person, The Monarch, Who In His Own Right Is The ...

Monasticism
Monasticism, An Ascetic System Of Living Apart From The World (gr. A Monk, From ,u6vos, Alone). Monasticism Is The Attempt To Develop And Regulate The Exercise Of Asceticism And Mysticism (qq.v.). It Is By No Means A Creation Of Christianity; Long Before The Christian Era A Highly Organized Monasticism Existed ...

Monastir
Monastir, One Of The Largest Cities In S. Serbia, Yugo Slavia (serbian Bitolj). Pop. (1931), 32,982, Comprising Serbs, Mohammedan Slays, Albanians, Turks, Bulgarians, Vlachs, Greeks And The Largest Jewish Colony In Serbia. Each Of These Has Its Own District And Conducts Its Own National And Religious Propaganda. The Town Is ...

Monazite
Monazite, A Mineral Consisting Of Phosphate Of The Cerium Metals, The Formula Being Small And Variable Amounts Of Thorium I-1 O%) And Yttrium Are Usually Also Present. It Is Of Considerable Commercial Importance As A Source Of Thoria For The Manufacture Of Mantles For Incandescent Gas-lighting ; The Cerium Is ...

Monel Metal
Monel Metal, The Trade-marked Name Of A Copper Nickel Alloy Developed In 1905. The Alloy Contains About 67% Nickel, 28% Copper, 2% Iron, Together With Small Amounts Of Carbon, Manganese And Silicon, And Is Made Directly From The Copper-nickel Ores Of Sudbury, Ont., Canada, By Roasting The Copper-nickel Converter Matte ...

Monetary Union
Monetary Union. An Agreement Between Two Or More Countries, Whereby The National Currency Of Each Contains An Equal Amount Of Gold And Silver, So That The Mint Par Of Exchange Between Them Is In The Ratio Of One To One, And The Coins Of Each Country Adhering To The Union ...

Money
Money. The Word "money" Is Believed To Be Derived From Moneta, An Attribute Of The Roman Goddess Juno, Because The Ancient Roman Mint Was Established In The Temple Of Juno Moneta. It Is Possible However That The Goddess's Attribute Mo Neta Was Itself Derived From The Use Of The Temple ...

Money Lending
Money-lending. In Primitive Societies The Taking Of Interest For The Loan Of Goods Or Services Rendered, In Transactions Between Members Of The Same Community, Was Unknown. All That Was Expected Was The Return Of Similar Goods Or Services. With The Substitution Of Money For Corn And Cattle, This Idea That ...

Money Market
Money Market. This Term Is Sometimes Used To Include The Whole Machinery Of A Financial Centre And So To Include The Stock Exchange And The Instruments Of Company Promotion. More Usually, It Is Confined To The Organization Which Provides Credit Of Short Duration, Consisting Of The Banks Which Make Ad ...