PERUZZI, BALDASSARE (1481-1536), Italian archi tect and painter of the Roman school, was born at Ancajano, near Volterra, on March 7, 1481, and passed his early life at Siena. Peruzzi went to Rome about 1503, under the patronage of the Sienese banker, Agostino Chigi, and there studied architecture and painting. The choir frescoes in Sant' Onofrio, on the Janic ulan hill, show the influence of Pinturicchio. However, he soon fell under the influence of Raphael, and he learnt much from the study of the antique. The first work which brought renown to the young architect was the villa on a bank of the Tiber, now known as the Farnesina, built for Agostino Chigi. This villa is best known for the frescoes painted there by Raphael and his pupils. One of the loggie has frescoes by Peruzzi's own hand —the story of Medusa. In 1516 he painted the frescoes in the Capella Pozzetti at S. Maria della Pace. On account of his suc cess, Peruzzi was appointed by Leo X., in 1520, architect to St. Peter's at a salary of 25o scudi; his design for its completion was not, however, carried out. In 1522 he was invited to Bologna to design a facade for the church of S. Petronio. In 1525 he built the Ossoli palace in Rome. During the sack of Rome in 1527 Peruzzi escaped with his life to Siena, where he was made city architect, and designed fortifications for its defence. A little
court of the oratory of S. Caterina, the frescoes in Castel Belcaro and in the church of Fonte Giusta, date from this time. In 1529 he was made capo maestro of the cathedral. Here he designed a magnificent wooden-organ case, the high altar, and the Cap pella del Battista. He then returned to Rome and in 1535 began the famous Palazzo Massimi. He died on Jan. 6, 1536, and was buried by the side of Raphael, in the Pantheon.
Peruzzi was an eager student of mathematics and was also a fair classical scholar, a most able architect, a fair painter, and a scientific engineer. The National Gallery has an interesting drawing of the "Adoration of the Magi." The Uffizi and the library at Siena contain a number of Peruzzi's designs and draw ings, many of which show ancient buildings which have been destroyed since the 16th century.
BIBLIOGRAPHY.—Vasari, Vita di Baldassare Peruzzi (Milanesi's ed., 1882), iv. 489; Milizia, Memorie degli architetti (1781, i. 210-215) ; Della Valle, Lettere senesi (1782-86) ; G. Frizzoni, Arte Italiana del Rinascimento (Milan, 189i).