PINCKNEY, CHARLES COTESWORTH American statesman, was born in Charleston, S.C. on Feb. 25, 1746, the son of Charles Pinckney (d. 1758), a prominent figure in colonial times, by his second wife, the celebrated girl planter, Eliza Lucas. When a child he was sent to England, like his brother Thomas after him, to be educated. Both of them were at West minster and Oxford and were called to the bar, and for a time they studied in France at the Royal Military college at Caen.
Returning to America in 1769, C. C. Pinckney began the practice of law at Charleston. He was a member of the first South Carolina provincial congress in 1775, served as colonel in the South Caro lina militia in 1776-77, was chosen president of the South Caro lina senate in 1779, took part in the Georgia expedition and the attack on Savannah in the same year, was captured at the fall of Charleston in i78o and kept in confinement until 1782. He was an influential member of the constitutional convention of 1787, ad vocating the counting of all slaves as a basis of representation and opposing the abolition of the slave-trade. He opposed as " im practicable" the election of representatives by popular vote, and also opposed the payment of senators, who, he thought, should be men of wealth. Subsequently Pinckney bore a prominent part in securing the ratification of the Federal constitution in the South Carolina convention of 1788. In 1796 he succeeded James Mon
roe as minister to France. The Directory refused to receive him, and he retired to Holland, but in the next year, Elbridge Gerry and John Marshall having been appointed to act with him, he again repaired to Paris, where he is said to have made the famous reply to a veiled demand for a "loan" (in reality for a gift), "Millions for defence, but not one cent for tribute,"—another version is, "No, not a sixpence." The mission accomplished noth ing, and Pinckney and Marshall left France in disgust, Gerry (q.v.) remaining. When the correspondence of the commissioners was sent to the United States Congress the letters "X," "Y" and "Z," were inserted in place of the names of the French agents with whom the commission treated—hence the "X Y Z Correspond ence," famous in American history. In 1800 he was the Federalist candidate for vice president, and in 1804 and again in 1808 for president, receiving 14 electoral votes in the former and 47 in the latter year. From 1805 until his death, on Aug. 16, 1825, he was president general of the Society of the Cincinnati.