PATINIR, JOACHIM DE (c. 1475-1524) Flemish painter, was probably born at Bouvignes about the year 1475. In 1515 he entered the Antwerp painters' gild. He may be called one of the first landscape painters in the Netherlands, for, contrary to the custom of his time, the figures in his pictures are relatively small and are subsidiary to his views. He specialized on land scape. His views are seen from a high standpoint and range over a wide extent of hilly country. The plants of his foregrounds are carefully studied and masses of rich dark foliage and jutting fantastic rocks are placed in the middle distance. The scene is full of incidents, and a religious subject is introduced, because in Patinir's time landscape painting was not yet an art sufficient in itself. The figures are often painted by other artists.
Though few of Patinir's pictures have survived, a large number have been attributed to him. There are but three signed works:
"The Flight into Egypt," at Antwerp, "the Baptism of Christ," at Vienna, and the "St. Jerome," at Carlsruhe. Four of his best pictures are at Madrid: "The Flight into Egypt," the "St. Jerome," "Heaven and Hell," and the "Temptation of St. Anthony." In the last named picture the figures are painted by Quentin Matsys. The so-called "Master of the Half-lengths" painted the figures in three of Patinir's landscapes—the "Virgin" at Copenhagen; the "St. John at Patmos," in the National Gal lery, London, and the "Magi" at Munich.
Few facts are known about Patinir's life. He was visited by Direr in 152o in his house in the Rue Courte l'Hopital at Antwerp. Patinir died at Antwerp in See M. Friedlander, Von Eyck bis Bruegel (1921) ; Sir Martin Conway, Van Eyck and his Followers (1921).