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institute, india and agricultural

PUSA, a village of British India, in Darbhanga district, Bihar and Orissa, near the right bank of the Burh Gandak river; and 6 m. from the Pusa Road station on the Bengal and North-Western railway. The Government acquired an estate here in 1796, long used as a stud depot and afterwards as a tobacco farm. The estate, which covers 1,280 ac. was made over in 1904 to the Im perial Agricultural Department (of the Government of India), of which it is the headquarters. The Research Institute here com prises, in addition to a farm, an agricultural college, at which offi cers are trained for the higher posts in the Agricultural Depart ment, and a research laboratory bearing the name of Mr. Phipps, an American gentleman, who contributed L30,000 towards its cost. The institute, which owed its inception to Lord Curzon, has, within the comparatively short period of its existence, done mag nificent service to Indian agriculture by producing improved vari eties of crops. In particular, it has achieved remarkable suc cess by evolving strains of wheat which give a high yield, have powers of resistance to rust, are able to mature with less water than the generality of Indian wheats, and give good results under diverse conditions of soil and climate. The Pusa varieties are now

grown on over 12 million acres of the United Provinces, the Punjab and the North-Western Frontier province. The institute has also produced a heavy-yielding variety of bearded wheat suit able for areas where the crop is liable to damage by birds. The institute has introduced berseem, or Egyptian clover. It has been proved that a small irrigated area of poor land, in which berseem is followed by early maize, can provide a large herd with all the bulky green food it requires—a discovery of immense im portance in a country depending so largely on cattle, where the pasture lands are for a large part of the year parched and bare. Further, valuable results have been obtained by selective breeding of cattle, e.g., by doubling the milk yield of a pure herd in ten years. In order to improve both the quality and quantity of sugar production, a Sugar Bureau has been established, which gives advice to cultivators, manufacturers, etc. The institute studies soil improvement and the use of phosphates found in India.