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department, st, clermont-ferrand, allier, near, limagne, ft, waters and western

PUYALLUP, a city of Washington, U.S.A. It is served by the Great Northern, the Northern Pacific and the Union Pacific railways. (1920) 6,323 (87% native white) ; 1930 it was i 7,094. It is in a fertile region, famous for its berries, and has three large fruit-canning and pre-cooling plants, besides several saw and shingle mills, veneer plants and other manufacturing in dustries. It is the seat of the Western Washington agricultural experiment station of the State college and the Western Washing ton Fair (average attendance, 150,000) is an annual event. A tablet across the river marks the site of the first block-house built in the valley. Puyallup was founded in 1853 by Ezra Meeker, and was incorporated in 1890, with its founder as the first mayor.

a department of central France, four fif the of which belonged to Basse-Auvergne, one-sixth to Bour bonnais, and the remainder to Forez (Lyonnais). Area, 3,090 sq. miles. Pop. (1931), 500,590. It is bounded north by Allier, east by Loire, south by Haute-Loire and Cantal, and west by Correze and Creuse. The famous plain of the Limagne, watered by the Allier and its tributary, the Dore, has on its western flank the volcanic Puys and Monts Dore, while on its eastern side rises the largely granitic heights of the Forez (5,38o ft.). The Puys include a number of craters, now dead and often filled by lakes, which also occur behind lava dams in the valleys. The Puy de Sancy (6,188 ft.) is the highest crater, but the Puy de Dome (4,806 ft.) gives its name to the department and has a meteoro logical observatory on its summit, once crowned by a Roman temple, the ruins of which still exist.

The climate of Puy-de-Dome is usually very severe, owing to its high level and its distance from the sea; the mildest air is found in the northern valleys, where the elevation is least. During summer the hills about Clermont-Ferrand, exposed to the sun, become all the hotter because their black volcanic soil absorbs its rays. On the average 25 or 26 in. of rain fall in the year; in the Limagne, around which the mountains arrest the clouds, rainfall is less. Nevertheless the soil of this plain, consisting of alluvial deposits of volcanic origin, and watered by torrents and streams from the mountains, makes it one of the richest regions of France. In the highest altitudes the rainfall attains 64 inches.

About two-thirds of the inhabitants of the Puy-de-DOrne are engaged in agriculture. The Limagne yields a variety of products and the vine flourishes on its hill-sides. The high mountains pro vide pasture for large flocks of cows and sheep, and cheese-making is an important industry. The intermediate region is cultivated mainly for cereals, the chief of which are wheat, rye, oats and barley. Potatoes are largely grown, and peas, beans, beetroot, colza

and tobacco. The Limagne produces fruit of all kinds—apricots, cherries, pears, walnuts and apples, yielding considerable quantities of cider. The department possesses considerable mineral wealth. There are important coal-mines at Brassac on the Allier, on the borders of Haute-Loire, at St. Elroy near the department of Allier, and at Bourg-Lastic on the borders of Correze. Peat, asphalt, bituminous schists, antimony, mispickel and argentiferous lead are also worked. Of the last named there are mines and foundries at Pontgibaud on the Sioule. Amethysts and other rare minerals are found, and there are numerous stone-quarries. Mont Dore, Royat and La Bourboule are watering places. The springs of St. Nectaire contain sodium and iron chlorides and bicarbonates. The waters of Chateauneuf (on the Sioule), also known to the Romans, contain iron bicarbonates; those of Chatelguyon, like the waters of Carlsbad and Marienbad, are also widely known, and there are many other mineral springs of varied character. Manufactures are grouped around Thiers, which produces a large amount of cheap cutlery, and Clermont-Ferrand, the capital. The textile industry includes wool-carding and making of linen cloths, bunting, clothing, manufactories for lace and for rubber (Clermont-Ferrand), sugar works, manufactures of edible pastes and of fruit-preserves. The department exports grain, fruits, cattle, wines, cheese, wood, min eral waters, cutlery, etc. It is served by the Orleans and P.L.M. railway companies. Many thousands of the inhabitants, chiefly of the district of Ambert, leave it during winter and find work else where. The department comprises 4 arrondissements—Clermont Ferrand, Issoire, Riom, Thiers-50 cantons and 472 communes.

The chief towns are Clermont-Ferrand, Issoire, Thiers, Riom, Ambert, Mont-Dore-les-Bains, La Bourboule and Royat (q.v.). Near Clermont-Ferrand is Mt. Gergovie (see GERGOVIA), the scene of the victory of Vercingetorix over Julius Caesar. Billom, Chamalieres, Courpiere, Orcival, St. Nectaire and St. Saturnin possess churches in the Romanesque style of Auvergne. There are interesting ruined feudal strongholds at Murols and Tournoel (near Volvic). Vic-le-Comte has a sainte-chapelle which is a beautiful example of the transition from Gothic to Renaissance architecture, and Aigueperse has a Gothic church of the 13th to the 15th century. Near Pontgibaud are the ruins (13th century) of the Carthusian abbey of Port St. Marie. There are a few Megalithic remains in the department.