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Encyclopedia Britannica

Recognizance
Recognizance, A Term Of Common Law Usually Employed To Describe An Obligation Of Record, Entered Into Before Some Court Or Magistrate Duly Authorized, Whereby The Party Bound Acknowl Edges That He Owes A Personal Debt To The Crown, With A De Feasance, I.e., Subject To A Condition That The Obligation ...

Record
Record. According To Sir Edward Coke A Record Was "a Memorial And Remembrance In Rolls Of Parchment Of The Proceed Ings And Acts Of A Court Of Justice." It Was The Perpetuation Of The Terms Of A Ratified Transaction, Whether Between Individuals, Corporations Or States. Its Value Was Precise And ...

Red Cross
Red Cross, The National And International Agency Whose Primary Purpose Is To Care For The Sick, The Wounded And Prisoners In Time Of War. The Development Of The Red Cross Movement, Especially Since 1919, Has Shown A World-wide Tendency To Regard The Alleviation Of Human Suffering, Whatever Its Source, As ...

Red River
Red River, The Name Of Two American Rivers, One Empty Ing Into The Mississippi Near Its Mouth, And The Other Emptying Into Lake Winnipeg. I. The Red River, Sometimes Called The Red River Of Louisiana, Is The Southernmost Of The Large Tributaries Of The Mississippi. It Rises In Northern Texas, ...

Red Sea
Red Sea, A Narrow Strip Of Water Extending South-south-east From Suez To The Strait Of Bab El Mandeb In A Nearly Straight Line, And Separating The Coasts Of Arabia From Those Of Egypt, Nubia And Abyssinia. Its Total Length Is About 1,200 M., And Its Varies From About 250 M. ...

Redbreast Or Robin
Redbreast Or Robin, A Favourite Among English Birds Because Of Its Pleasing Colour, Its Sagacity And Fearlessness Of Man, And Its Song. In July And August The Hedgerows Of The Southern Counties Of England Are Beset With Redbreasts, Each Bird Keeping Its Own Distance From The Next, On Their Way ...

Redemptive Religions
Redemptive Religions The Prophetic Movement Is One Symptom Of The Enhanced Sense Of Personal And Religious Values, And The Emergence Of Religions Of Salvation Or Redemption Is Another. Both Indicate A Slacken Ing Of The Tie Which Binds Religion To The National And Political Structure. For The Official Religion Which ...

Redshank
Redshank, The Name Of A Bird, Tringa Totanus, So Called From The Colour Of Its Long Legs. In Suitable Localities It Is Abund Ant Throughout The Greater Part Of Europe And Asia, Retiring Southward For The Winter, Though A Considerable Number Remain Along The Coasts Of Some Of The More ...

Redstart Or Firetail
Redstart Or Firetail (phoenicurus Phoenicurus), A Small Bird Which Is A Summer Visitor To Europe, Where It Haunts Gardens, Orchards, And Old Buildings. Its Habit Of Flirting Its Red Tail, And The White Forehead, Black Throat, And Bay Breast Of The Cock Are Distinguishing Features ; The Hen Is More ...

Reed
Reed, A Term Applied To Several Distinct Species Of Large, Water-loving Grasses. The Common Or Water-reed, Phragmites Communis (also Known As Arundo Phragmites), Occurs Along The Margins Of Lakes, Fens, Marshes And Placid Streams, Not Only Throughout Great Britain And The United States, But Widely Dis Tributed In Arctic And ...

Reed Instruments
Reed Instruments, A Class Of Wind Instruments In The Tubes Of Which Sound-waves Are Generated By The Vibrations Of A Reed Mouthpiece. Reed Instruments Fall Into Two Great Classes: (i) Those Blown Directly By The Breath Of The Performer, Who Is Thus Able To Control More Or Less The Character ...

Referendum
Referendum And Initiative, Two Methods By Which The Wishes Of The General Body Of Electors In A Constitutional State May Be Expressed With Regard To Proposed Legislation. They Are Developed To The Highest Extent In Switzerland, And Are Best Exemplified In The Swiss Federal And Cantonal Constitutions. By These Two ...

Reflection
Reflection. When Waves Of Any Kind Travelling In One Medium Arrive At Another In Which Their Velocity Is Different, Part Of Their Energy Is, In General, Turned Back Into The First Medium. This Is Termed Reflection. If The Surface Of Separation Is Smooth, I.e., If The Irregularities In It Are ...

Reflectors
Reflectors. The Light From Most Illuminants Is Dis Tributed In A Manner Such That Under Most Conditions It Cannot Be Efficiently Employed Without The Use Of Reflectors, Or Other Media For Re-directing The Light Into Useful Angles. Reflectors In Common Usage To-day Not Only Control The Direction Of The Light, ...

Reform Movement
Reform Movement, The Name Given In History To That Movement Towards Parliamentary Electoral Reform, Active In Eng Land Between 1769 And 1832, And In France Between 1832 And 1848. Different As The Two Movements Were In Character, Time (the Principal Phase Of The English Struggle Was Over In 1832, When ...

Reformation
Reformation. This Word, Like "catholic," Is In Itself A Question-begging Term ; But Both Are Adopted, If Only Under Protest, In The General Speech Of The Present Day. By "reforma Tion," Then, We Mean That Religious Revolution Of The 16th Century Which Has Divided Western Christendom Into Two Camps, The ...

Reformatory School
Reformatory School, An Institution For The Voca Tional Training Of Juvenile Offenders. In Great Britain This Means Offenders Over 12 And Under 16 Years Of Age, Who Have Been Con Victed Of Offences Which, In The Case Of Adults, Would Be Punishable By Penal Servitude Or Imprisonment. The Period Of ...

Reformed Church In America
Reformed Church In America, A Church Founded By The Colonists From The Netherlands, The First Settlers Of New York And New Jersey. Generally Known From The Be Ginning In New Amsterdam Until Now As The Dutch Reformed Church, It Was Incorporated As The Reformed Protestant Dutch Church In 1819. This ...

Reformed Church In The
Reformed Church In The United States, A German Calvinistic Church In America, Commonly Called The German Reformed Church. It Traces Its Origin To Switzerland, France And Germany And Especially To The Great German Immigra Tion Of The 17th Century To Pennsylvania Where The Reformed Element Was Estimated In 1730 To ...

Refrigerants
Refrigerants Liquids Used In Refrigerating Machines.—modern Me Chanical Refrigeration (as Well As Other Heat Cycles) Has Undergone A Great Change During The Last Decade Or Two. The Improved Auto Matic Refrigerating Machine And The Advance In The Use Of Comfort Cooling Have Emphasized The Need Of A Refrigerant That Will ...

Refrigerators Household
Refrigerators (household). Ice And Mechan Ical Refrigerators Operate On The Same Principle, The Absorption Of Heat From The Food Compartment By A Physical Change In The Refrigerating Medium, Ice To Water In One Case, The Liquid Ref Rig Erant To A Gas In The Other. Both Types Of Refrigerators Are ...

Refugees And The Exchange
Refugees And The Exchange Of Popula Tions. In The Early History Of European Civilization Wars And Conquests Were Often Followed Or Accompanied By Considerable Movements Of Population. Sometimes The Two Went Necessarily Together, Because The Motive For War Was The Desire For Richer Lands On Which The Conquerors Wished To ...

Refuse Disposal
Refuse Disposal, The General Term Employed In The United States To Denote The Solid Wastes Of A Community, Includ Ing Garbage, Rubbish, Ashes And Miscellaneous Wastes. (for British Practice See Destructors.) Garbage May Be Defined As The Waste Matter Resulting From The Preparation, Cooking And Consumption Of Food. Rubbish Is ...

Regeneration In Animals
Regeneration In Animals. Like Every Substance, The Tissues Of Our Body Are Subject To Wear And Tear. They Would Soon Be Useless If There Were No Possibility Of Repair. The Skin Would Rub Off, The Nails Grind Down, The Hair Split And Fall, The Muscles And Nerves Be Worn Out ...

Regensburg
Regensburg (ratisbon), A City And Episcopal See Rf Germany, In The Land Of Bavaria, And The Capital Of The Gov Ernment District Of The Upper Palatinate. Pop. (1933) 81,171. It Is Situated On The Right Bank Of The Danube, Opposite The Influx Of The Regen, 86 M. By Rail N.e. ...

Regent
Regent, One Who Rules Or Governs, Especially One Who Acts Temporarily As An Administrator Of The Realm During The Minority Or Incapacity Of The King. This Latter Function, However, Is One Unknown To The English Common Law. "in Judgment Of Law The King, As King, Cannot Be Said To Be ...

Reggio Emilia
Reggio Emilia, A City And Episcopal See Of Emilia, Italy, The Capital Of The Province Of Reggio Emilia (till 1859 Part Of The Duchy Of Modena), 38 M. By Rail N.w. Of Bologna. Pop. (1906) 19,681 (town) 64,548 (commune) ; (town) 82,915 (commune). The Town Is In The Shape Of ...

Regicide
Regicide, The Name Given To Anyone Who Kills A Sovereign (lat. Rex, A King, And Caedere, To Kill). Regicides Is The Name Given In English History At The Restoration Of 166o To Those Per Sons Who Were Responsible For The Execution Of Charles I. The Number Of Regicides Was Estimated ...

Regiomontanus 1436 1476
Regiomontanus (1436-1476) , German Astronomer, Was Born At Konigsberg In Franconia On June 6, 1436. His Name Originally Was Johann Muller, But He Called Himself, From His Birthplace, Joh. De Monteregio, An Appellation Which Became Mod Ified Into Regiomontanus. At Vienna, From 1452, He Was The Pupil And Associate Of ...

Regional Planning
Regional Planning, A Term Used By Community Planners, Engineers And Geographers To Describe A Comprehensive Ordering Of The Natural Resources Of A Community, Its Material Equipment And Its Population For The Purpose Of Laying A Sound Physical Basis For The "good Life." In America The Term Has Also Been Used ...

Regium Donum Or Royal
Regium Donum Or Royal Gift, An Annual Grant F Or Merly Made From The Public Funds To Presbyterian And Other Nonconformist Ministers In Great Britain And Ireland. In 1690 William Iii. Made A Grant Of £1,200 A Year To The Presbyterian Ministers In Ireland As A Reward For Their Services ...

Regulation Of The Non Tidal
Regulation Of The Non-tidal Portions Of Rivers For Navigation As Rivers Flow Onward Towards The Sea, Their Current Becomes More Gentle And Their Discharge Larger In Volume And Less Subject To Abrupt Variations. Large Rivers, Therefore, Often Furnish Im Portant Natural Highways For Inland Navigation In The Lower Portion Of ...

Reichsbank
Reichsbank. The Reichsbank Is The Central Bank Of Ger Many, Corresponding To The Bank Of England. It Was Founded In 1875, Following Upon The Unification Of The German Empire. Under Its Original Constitution, Its Management Was Divided Be Tween Its Shareholders, Acting Through A Committee, And The Government, But The ...

Reims Rheims
Reims (rheims), A City Of North-eastern France, Chief Town Of An Arrondissement Of The Department Of Marne, 98 M. E.n.e. Of Paris, On The Eastern Railway. Pop. (1931) 106,662. Reims Stands In A Plain On The Right Bank Of The Vesle, A Tributary Of The Aisne, And On The Canal ...

Reinsurance
Reinsurance. Reinsurance Is The Term Used To Denote The Transaction Whereby A Person Who Has Insured A Risk Insures Again A Part Or The Whole Of That Risk With Another Person. The Purpose Of Reinsurance Is To Relieve The Original Insurer From A Liability Which Is Too Heavy For Him ...

Rejuvenation
Rejuvenation. In All Multicellular Animals The Process Of Regeneration, Growth And Rejuvenation Is Constant As Is Shown Typically By The Hair And Nails. It Is Now Possible To Cultivate Tissues In Suitable Media (see Tissue Culture) And To Keep Them Alive Long After The Death Of The Parent Organism. This ...

Relapsing Fever
Relapsing Fever (febris Recurrens), The Name Given To A Specific Infectious Disease Occasionally Appearing As An Epidemic In Communities Suffering From Scarcity Or Famine. It Is Characterized Mainly By Its Sudden Invasion, With Violent Febrile Symptoms, Which Continue For About A Week And End In A Crisis, But Are Followed ...

Relativity
Relativity. The Progress Of Natural Science In The First Quarter Of The Present Century Was Especially Noteworthy Through The Appearance Of The Doctrine Of Relativity, And Its Almost Immediate Acceptance By The Scientific World In General. The Need For Some Such Theory Had Long Been Felt And Was Becom Ing ...

Relativity Philosophical Conse Quences
Relativity: Philosophical Conse Quences. Of The Consequences In Philosophy Which May Be Supposed To Follow From The Theory Of Relativity (q.v.), Some Are Fairly Certain, While Others Are Open To Question. There Has Been A Tendency, Not Uncommon In The Case Of A New Scientific Theory, For Every Philosopher To ...

Relics
Relics, The Name Given In The Church To, (i) The Bodies Of The Saints, Or Portions Of Them, (2) Such Objects As The Saints Made Use Of During Their Lives, Or As Were Used At Their Martyr Dom. These Objects Were Held In Religious Veneration, And By Their Means It ...

Relief
Relief, In Sociology, The Word Relief Which Has Come To Pos Sess A Technical Significance Is Very Old, Even In The Derivative Usage Of Giving To Those Who Otherwise Would Suffer. It Is Con Trasted With Work And With Social Insurance As A Method Of Taking Care Of The Unemployed ...

Religion
Religion. The Treatment Of This Subject Will Fall Into Two Distinct Sections, A. Primitive Religion And B. The Higher Re Ligions. Fetish Cannot Be Brought Under The Head Of Magic, Even If We Adopt Frazer's Principle (op. Cit. I. 225) That To Constrain Or Coerce A Personal Being Is To ...