His rival, Juan Valera, is not, in the restricted sense of the word, realistic, but he is no less real in his own wider province; he has neither Pereda's energy nor austerity of purpose, but has a more infallible tact, a larger experience of men and women, and his sceptical raillery is as effective a moral commentary as Pe reda's Christian pessimism. In Valera's Pepita Jimenez and Dona Luz, and in Pereda's Sotileza, we have a trio of Spanish heroines who deserve their fame. Benito Perez Galdos gave a new life to the historical novel in his huge series entitled Episodios na cionales. The colouring is so brilliant, the incident is so varied
and so full of interest, the spirit so stirring and patriotic, that the born Spaniard easily forgives their frequent prolixity. Their appeal is irresistible; there is also a considerable public for the politico-religious novels such as Dona Perfecta, Gloria and Leon Roch, which have been published in English versions. The quick response of Perez GaldOs to any external stimulus, his sensitive ness to every change in the literary atmosphere, made it inevitable that he should come under the influence of French naturalism as he does in Lo Prohibido and in Realidad; but his conversion was temporary, and two profound novels dealing with contemporary life-Fortunata y Jacinta and Angel Guerra-mark the third and culminating stage in the development of one of the greatest of Spanish novelists. The talent of Armando Palacio Valdes was first displayed in El Senorito Octavio. Two subsequent works-Marta y Maria and the delightful La Herman San Sulpicio-raised hopes that Spain had, in Palacio Valdes, a novelist of the first order to succeed Valera; but in La Espuma and La Fe, two social studies which contained caricatures of well-known personages, the author ceased to be national and did not become cosmopolitan.
Another novelist who for a time divided honours with Palacio Valdes was Emilia Pardo Bazars. The powerful, repellent pic tures of peasant life and the ethical daring of Los Pazos de Ulloa and La Madre Naturaleza are set off by graphic passages of de scription; and the local patriotism which inspires Insolacion and De mi tierra is expressed in a style which secures Emilia Pardo Bazan a high place among her contemporaries. Leopoldo Alas (1851-1901), who used the pseudonym of "Clarin," was better known as a ruthless critic than as a novelist; the interest of his shorter stories has evaporated, but his ambitious novel, La Regenta, lives as an original study of the relation between mysti cism and passion. Jacinto Octavio Picon (1852-1923), who de serted novel writing for criticism, displayed much insight in Ldzaro, the story of a priest who finds himself forced to lay down his orders; this work was naturally denounced by the clerical party, and orthodoxy declared equally against El Enemigo and Dulce y sabrosa; more impartial critics agree in admiring Pic6n's power of awakening sympathy and interest, his gift of minute psy chological analysis and his exquisite diction. Angel Ganivet (1865 1898) produced in Los Trabajos del infatigable creador Pio Cid a singular philosophical romance, rich in ideas and felicitous in ex pression, but lacking in narrative interest. Ramon del Valle Inclin (1869-1936) tended toward preciosity in Corte de Amor and Flor de Santidad; but in his four Sonatas, Primavera, Estio, Otono and Invierno (translated into English), he has produced a masterpiece, and in the protagonist, the Marques de Bradomin, a great character. (J. F.-K.; J. B. T.) Biblioteca de autores espanoles (Madrid, 1845-80), 71 vols.; Nueva bibl. de autores espanoles (Madrid, 1905 ) 25 vols. published; Clcisicos castellanos (Madrid, 1910- ), 86 vols. published (cheap editions with good introductions and notes).