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Viscoun

ulm, town, stuttgart, century, house and gothic

VISCOUN T (1855— ), Speaker of the British House of mons (1905-1921), was born on April 1, 1855, the son of William Lowther, M.P. He was educated at Eton, Kings college, London, and at Trinity college, Cambridge. He represented Penrith in the House of Commons from 1886 to 1921, when he received a vis county. Lowther had been deputy-speaker for ten years when he was elected to the chair of the House. He was a great Speaker, filling the duties of the office with humour, dignity and discre tion. He was chairman of the Speaker's Electoral Reform con ference (1916-17), which prepared the way for the great exten sion of the franchise, including the granting of votes to women; of the Devolution conference (1919) ; and of the royal commis sion on London Government (1921-22).

ULM,

a German city situated in the Land of WUrttemberg, situated on the left bank of the Danube, at the foot of the Swa bian Alps, 58 m. S.E. of Stuttgart by rail and 63 m. N.W. of Munich. Pop. 62,472. Ulm is mentioned as early as 854; it became a town in 1027, and was soon the principal place in the duchy of Swabia. Although burned down by Henry the Lion, it soon recovered from this disaster and became a free imperial town in 1155. Its trade and commerce prospered and in the 15th century it attained the summit of its prosperity, ruling over a district about 30o sq m. in extent, and having a population of about 6o,000. In 1803 it lost its freedom and passed to Bavaria, being ceded to Wurttemberg in 1809. In October i8o5 General Mack with 23,00o Austrians capitulated here to Napoleon. Ulm is remarkable in the history of German literature as the spot where the Meistersingers lingered longest, preserving without text and without notes the traditional lore of their craft.

Ulm still preserves the appearance of a free imperial town, and contains many mediaeval buildings of historic and of artistic interest. Among these are the town hall, of the i6th century, in the Transition style from late Gothic to Renaissance, restored in recent years ; the Kornhaus ; the Ehingerhaus or Neubronnerhaus, now containing the industrial museum; and the commandery of the Teutonic order, built in 1712-1718 on the site of a habitation of the order dating from the 13th century, and now used as barracks. The magnificent early Gothic cathedral, begun in 1377,

and carried on at intervals till the 16th century, was long left unfinished; but in 1844 the work of restoration and completion was begun, being completed in 189o. It has double aisles and a pentagonal apsidal choir, but no transepts. Its length (outside measurement) is 464 ft., its breadth 159 f t. ; and the aisles are covered with rich net-vaulting. The tower in the centre of the west façade was completed in 189o, and is the loftiest ecclesiasti cal erection in the world (528 ft.). The cathedral contains some fine stained glass, and a number of interesting old paintings and carvings. It belongs to the Protestant Church.

The Danube, joined by the Iller just above the town and by the Blau just below, here becomes navigable, so that Ulm occupies the important commercial position of a terminal river-port. There is water communication with the Neckar, and so to the Rhine. The market for leather and wool is important, and the manufac tures include wire ropes, borax, paints, cheese, jute, leather, lace, perfumes, and cement. Brewing and weaving, iron- and brass f ounding are carried on as well. As a fortress Ulm has been famous and it is a garrison town.

See E. Niibling, Handel and Gewerbe im Mittelalter (Ulm, 1892-19oo) ; G. Fischer, Geschichte der Stadt Ulm (Stuttgart, 1863) ; Pressel, Ulmiscl:cs Urkundenbuch (Stuttgart, 1873) ; and Ulm and sein Munster (Ulm, 1877) ; Schultes, Chronik *von Ulm (Stuttgart, 1881 and 1886) ; Hassler, Ulms Kunstgeschichte im Mittelaltcr (Stutt gart, 1872) ; and Das rote Buch der Stadt Ulm, edited by C. Mollvo (1904) •