WILLIAM TUKE was born at York on March 24, 1732. His name is connected with the humane treatment of the insane, for whose care he projected in 1792 the Retreat at York, under the management of the Society of Friends, which became famous as an institution in which a bold attempt was made to manage lunatics without the excessive restraints then regarded as essential. His son HENRY TUKE (1755-1814) co-operated with his father in his reforms.
Henry's son SAMUEL TUKE (1784-1857) continued the work begun by his grandfather, and published a Description of the Retreat near York, etc. (York, 1813). He also published Prac tical Hints on the Construction and Economy of Pauper Lunatic Asylums (1815). He died at York on Oct. 14, Samuel's son JAMES HACK TUKE is chiefly re membered for his philanthropic work in Ireland, which resulted from a visit to Connaught in 1847, where he witnessed much dis tress. Letters descriptive of the state of things he saw when he was distributing relief in 188o, were published in The Times, and in his pamphlet, Irish Distress and its Remedies (188o), he pointed out that Irish distress was due to economic rather than political difficulties, and advocated state-aided land purchase, peasant proprietorship, light railways, government help for the fishing and local industries, and family emigration for the poorest peasants. From 1882 to 1884 he superintended the emigration of
poor families to the United States and the Colonies. To his re ports on the distribution of seed potatoes in 1885, and his letters to The Times, which were reprinted under the title The Condition of Donegal (1889), were due in a great measure the bill passed for the construction of light railways in 1889 and the Irish Land Act which established the Congested Districts Board in 1891. He died on Jan. 13, 1896.
See Report of the Select Committee of the House of Commons (1815-16) ; Dr. Conolly, Treatment of the Insane without Mechanical Restraints (1856) ; Dr. Hack Tuke, Chapters in the History of the Insane in the British Isles (1882).