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Encyclopedia of Architecture by Peter Nicholson (1852)

Alhambra
Alha.mbra, An Ancient Palace Of The Mohammedan Kings Of Granada, Situated On A Hill Which Runs Out To The East Of The Town, And Surrounded By Strong Walls Flanked By Square Towers. These Walls Were Built Of A Kind Of Cement Formed Of Red Clay And Large Pebbles, Which, Being ...

Amphitheatre
Amphitheatre, (from Ab*, Around ; And Oearpov, Theatre,) In Roman Antiquity, A Large Edifice, Of An Elliptic Form, With A Series Of Rising Seats Or Benches Disposed Around A Spacious Area, Called The Arena, In Which The Combats Of Gladiators, Wild Beasts, And Other Sports, Were Exhibited. It Consisted Exteriorly ...

An Acute Angle
An Acute Angle Is That Which Is Less Than One Right Angle. The Angle Formed When A B Has Completed One Revo Lution And Arrived At A 11, Is Described As Four Right Angles + Angle N A N. Measurement Of Angles. Referring Again To The Last Dia Gram, It ...

Anam Or 9enemo A
A M G, An:am Or 9e::ne:mo Or C D. By Eollstrueti011 We Have Y5:on Or Na::co:c N; And Theretbre By Mul Tiplication We Have It N N A : C N', Which Property Is Known To Be That Of The Ellipsis And Hyperbola. Corollary.—since, In Tire Parabola, It N And ...

Andrea Palladio
Palladio, Andrea, In Biography, A Celebrated Italian Architect, Born At Vicenza In 1518. He Obtained Instructions From The Poet Trissino, Who Discovering In Him A Genius For Sculpture And The Arts Connected With It, Taught Him The Elements Of The Mathematics, And Explained To Him The Works Of Vitruvius. Ile ...

Angle
Angle, Rectilinear, (lat. Angalus, The Elbow,) According To Euclid, " The Inclination Of Two Straight Lines To One An Other, Which Meet, But Are Not In The Same Direction." This Definition, If Indeed It May He Termed Such, Is So Very Indis Tinet, And Even Inaccurate, That It Has Been ...

Antonio De Sangallo
Sangallo, Antonio De, A Celebrated Architect, Born In The 15th Century, In The Territory Of Florence. His Father, Antonio Picconi, Was A Cooper By Trade, And Antonio Was Brought Up To The Business Of A Joiner. Having, How Ever, Two Uncles, Guiliano And Antonio Sangallo, Architects, Of Considerable Reputation At ...

Aoofaccb
Ao:of::ac:cb; That Is, As Radius Is To The Sine Of Angle, A, So Is The Hypothenuse, A C, To The Perpendicular, C B. So That Having The Angle, A, And The Hypothenuse Given, The Perpendicular, B C, May Be Found ; Or, The Angle, A, May Be Found From Having ...

Apartment
Apartment, Any Part Of A House That Is Walled Round, And That May Be Entered Through Doors ; As Kitchen, Vesti Bule, Saloon, Dining-room, Drawing-room, Chamber, Closet, Library, Passage, &e. All The Apartments, On The Same Floor, Taken Collectively, When Opening One Into Another, Without An Intermediate Passage, Are Called ...

Aperture
Aperture, An Opening Through A Body. An Aperture In A Wall Has Generally Three Straight Sides, Two Of Which Are Perpendicular To The Horizon, And The Third Parallel To It, Connecting The Lower Ends Of The Vertical Ones. The Stones Forming The Perpendicular Sides Are Called Jambs, The Level Side ...

Arcade
Arcade, A Range Of Apertures With Arched Heads, Sup Ported Upon Square Pillars, Or Other Columns. Arcades Are Sometimes Employed To Form Porticos Instead Of Colonnades ; And Though They Are Not So Beautiful, They Arc Stronger, More Solid, And Less Expensive. In Such Buildings, The Utmost Care Should Be ...

Arch
Arch. A Structure Composed Of Separate Inelastic Bodies, Arranged In Such A Manner That Their Lower Surface Shall Form The Arc Of A Curve, Being Supported At Its Two Extremities. History. The Invention Of The Arch Has Been Assigned By Different Writers Respectively To Babylonians, Egyptians, Greeks, Romans, And Etruriens. ...

Architecture
Architecture, The Art Of Building. Did We Apply To This Word The Signification Derivable From The Original Greek, We Should Have Before Us A Very Extensive Field For Investigation. Custom, However, Has Limited The Application Of The Term To The Science Of Erecting Artificial Structures. The Origin Of This Department ...

Architrave
Architrave, (from Aproc, Chief, And Crabs, A Bean,) That Division Of The Entablature Which Rests Upon The Columns, And Which May Perhaps Represent The Linteling Beam Placed Over The Columns, And Over The Intercolumns, For Supporting The Cross Beams, In The Roof Of The Primitive Wooden Structure. In The Remains ...

Architrave Of A Door
Architrave Of A Door, A Collection Of Members Surround Ing The Aperture, Of A Section Similar To The Architraves Of The Ionic, Corinthian, And Roman Orders. The Head Or Lintel Is Called The Traverse, And The Sides The Jambs. Vitru Vius Calls The Jambs Antepaymenta, And The Head Or Traverse ...

Asgian Pei
Pei,asgian, Or Cveli Wean Architecture. These Titles Are Applied Indiscriminately To A Class Of Ancient Build Ings, To Be Flmnd In Various Parts Of Greece, Which Consist Principally Of Walls And Flirtifications, Such As The Walls Surrounding Their Acropoles. They Are Of Colossal Dimen Sions, And Composed Of Immense Stones, ...

Aster P11
P11,aster, (from The French, Pilaslre, Or Italian, Piles Tro,) In Architecture, A Square Column, Sometimes Insulated, But More Frequently Let Into A Wall, And Only Projecting With A Fourth Or Fifth Part Of Its Thickness. The Pilaster Borrows The Name Of Each Order, And Has The Same Proportions, Capitals, Members, ...

Astragal
Astragal, (from Acpaya),og, The Heel-bone,) A Mould Ing Of A Semicircular Section, Projecting From A Vertical Dia Meter. It Is Remarkable That Vitruvius Does Not Mention Any Astragal Between The Shaft And The Hvpotrachelion Of The Doric And Tuscan Columns, As Is To Be Found In The Doric Of The ...

Ate1kpatiii Atl1oeiaot Kiktnete Exopii1111
At.e1kpatiii Atl1oeiaot Kiktnete Exopii1111 Akaaiantii 11.1.1.112n Enika 0es2n Iitaei Atiia-1111: Aolinalof Ealiaike Etainetoehpxe Front This We May Conclude, That On Some Solemn Festival Which Was Celebrated With Games And Plays, Eysicrates Of Kikyna, A Demos Or Borough-town Of The Tribe Of A Kamantis, Did On Behalf Of His Tribe, But ...

Atlantides Atlantes
Atlantes, Atlantides, Or Atlas, The Name Given By The Greeks To The Figures Or Statues Of Men Used To Sup Port Entablatures With Mutnles Instead Of Pilasters Or Columns. They Were Also Called Zelamones And Persians. In The Architecture Of The Modern Italians, The Atlantes Are Often Found Supporting The ...

Attic
Attic, Is A Part Of A Building Standing On The Cornice, Similar Ill Form To That Of A Pedestal, And Is Either Broken Or Continued. It Is So Named From Its Being Supposed To Have Been First Used In Attica. The Use Of An Attic Is To Conceal The Roof, ...

B
B = A — A = (a C ± A B) '— A B) ; And Therefore B C = C ± A 13) • C — A B) Log. (a C A B) ± Log. (a C —a 13). Log. Bc— 2 From Which A C Is Easily Determined. ...

Babylonian Architecture
Babylonian Architecture. In Commencing This Article, We Must Premise That We Cannot Pretend To Any Detailed Description, As The Materials For Such An Undertaking Are Almost Entirely Wanting. An Account Of This Style Of Architecture Must Needs Be Very Imperfect, When The Very Situation Of The Ancient Babylon Remains- Uncertain. ...

Baldassaize 1eruzzi
1'eruzzi, Baldassaize, In Biography, Was Born At Accajano, In The Territory Of Sienna, In 14s1, In Poor And Dis Tressed Circumstances ; His Fluffier Having Been Reduced From A State Of Comparative Affluence, By The Civil Wars Which Ravaged Florence And Its Territory. Baldassare Exhibited His Genius At A Very ...

Balustrade
Balustrade, A Range Of Small Columns Called Balus Ters Supporting A Cornice, Used As A Parapet, Or As A Screen, To Conceal The Whole Or A Part Of The Roof. It Is Also Sometimes Used As A Decoration For Terminating The Building. Balm; Trades Are Employed In Parapets, On The ...

Baptistery
Baptistery, (from To ?posh,) A Building, Or Apartment, Designed For The Administration Of Baptism. In Ancient Times, Baptism Was Performed By Immersion, And The Place Fin• The Purpose A Pond Or Stream ; But About The Middle Of The Third Century, Distinct Or Insulated Houses Were Erected For The Purpose. ...

Barn
Barn, A Covered Building, For Laying Up And Preserving All Sorts Of Grain, Hay, Straw, &c. The Situation Of A Barn Should Be Dry And Rather Elevated, And On The North Or North East Side Of A Farm-yard ; But Neither Contiguous To The House, Nor To Any Offices Connected ...

Basement
Basement, The Lowest Story Of A Building, On Which An Order Is Placed, Consisting Of A Base, Die, And Cornice. The Choragic Monument Of Lysicrates Is A Beautiful Example Of An Antique Basement. In Modern Buildings, The Height Of The Basement Will Vary According To The Character Of The Edifice ...

Basilica
Basilica, (from Paatilevc, King, And Olgoc, House, Signi Fying Royal House,) A Building Originally Used As A Court Of Justice. Among The Romans, It Was A Large Hall Adjoining The Forum, Where The Magistrates Judged The People Under Cover, Which Distinguished It From The Fora, Where They Held Their Sittings ...

Basso Relievo
Basso - Relievo, (italian ; Bas-relief, French,) In Sculpture, Is The Representation Of Figures Projecting From A Back Ground, So As To Give Relief. It Is A General Term, Com Prehending Three Distinct Species Of Sculpture. Low Relief; Sometimes Also Called Basso-•elievo, Is That In Which No Part Of The ...

Battening
Battening, The :let Or Fixing Battens To Walls, In Order To Secure The Laths Over Which The Plaster Is Laid; Or, The Battens In The State Of Fixed For That Purpose. The Battens Employed Are Generally About Two Inches Broad, And Three-fburths Of An Inch Thick ; They May, However, ...

Battlements
Battlements, Indentations On The Top Of A Wall, Parapet, Or Other Building. They Were First Used In Ancient Fortifications, And Were Afterwards Applied To Churches And Other Buildings, As Mere Ornaments. Their Outline Is Generally A Conjunction Of Straight Lines At Right Angles To Each Other ; Each Indentation Having ...

Bernini Giovanni Lorenzo
Bernini. Giovanni Lorenzo, Born 1598, Died 16s0. Ii Is Father, Pietro Bernini, A Florentine, Was A Painter And Sculptor Of More Than Common Talents. Giovanni's First Work In Architecture Was The Great Central Altar Of St. Peter's, Remarkable Fin- Its Twisted Columns ; Its Novelty, Singularity, And The Difficulty Of ...

Bggcbffe
Bg:gc::bf:fe. But Dc Is The Difference Of The Sides T A And N C ; And Because D F : F A G C; But D F And Fa Are Equal, Whence Da And G C Are Equal ; Therefore, N O Or A C, Is Half The Difference Of ...

Bits
Bits Are Of Various Kinds, Depending On Their Use : Shell Bits Are Used For Boring Wood, And Have An Interior Cylindric Concavity For Containing The Core. Centre Bits, Are Those Which Run Upon A Centre In The Middle Of The Breadth ; One Extremity Is Formed Into A Cutting ...

Blackfriars Bridge
Blackfriars Bridge Is About 1,000 Feet In Length, And About 43 Feet Wide, Including A Carriage-way Of 2s Feet, And Two Raised Footpaths For Pedestrians, Each 7 Feet In Width ; It Is Built Of Nine Nearly Semi-elliptical Arches, Of Which The Centre One Is 100 Feet, And The Others ...

Boarded Floors
Boarded Floors, Are Those Covered With Boards. The Operation Of Boarding Floors May Commence As Soon As The Windows Are In. And The Plaster Dry. The Preparations Of The Boards Tb• This Purpose Are As Follow. They Should Be Planed On Their Best Face, And Set Out To Season Till ...

Bonarrotti
Bonarrotti, Bt'onaroti, Or Bonarota, Michael Angelo, A Celebrated Painter, Sculptor, And Architect, Born At ('hiusi, Ill Tuscany, In The Year 1474. Ills Talents Were So Early Developed, That He Is Figuratively Said To Have Been Born A Painter; And His Parents, Observing The Turn Of His Genius, Put Him Under ...

Bond
Bond, Flemish, In Brickwork, Is That Which Has One Header Between Every Two Stretchers, And One Stretcher Between Every Two Headers Throughout The Same Course. This Is Considered The Neatest And Most Beautiful ; But Is Attended With Great Inconvenience In The Execution, And In Most Cases Does Not Unite ...

Bond Tinirers
Bond-tinirers, Are Those Horizontal Pieces, Built In Stone Or Brick Walls, For Strengthening The Building, And Securing The Battening, Lath, And Plaster : Also The Horizontal Mould Ings, Or Finishings Of Wood. Bond-timbers Disposed In Tires, At Altitudes Corresponding To Those Of The Horizontal Mouldings, In The Finishing Of Apart ...

Boxings Of A Window
Boxings Of A Window, Are The Two Cases, One On Each Side Of The Window, Into Which Each Of The Adjacent Shutters Is Folded, When Light Is Require In The Room. The Leaves Which Appear In The Front Of Each Boxing, Are Denominated Front Shutters ; And Those In The ...

Bracketing
Bracketing, A Disposition Of Small Pieces Of Board, Equidistantly Placed In The Angles Formed By The Ceiling And The Walls Of An Apartment, With Their Planes At Right Angles To The Common Intersection, So As To Be Partly Upon The Veil Ing And Partly Upon The Walls; Their Faces Or ...

Break
Break, A Projecting Part Of The Front Of A Building. Carried Up Through One Or More Stories In A Vertical Surface. In Its General Acceptation, It Implies Only A Part, Which Stands Forward In A Plane Parallel To The Other Parts Of The Front Behind The Break ; Or A ...

Brick
Brick, An Artificial Kind Of Stone, Composed In General Of Earth And Sand, Or Coal Cinders. Or Ashes, Well Mixed Toge Ther, And Tempered With Water. Then Dried In The Sun, And Finally Burned To A Proper Degree Of Hardness In A Kiln, Or In A Heap Or Stack, Denominated ...

Brickwork Bricklaying
Bricklaying, Brickwork, The Art Of Building Or Erecting Walls Or Edifices With Bricks, Cemented Together With Mortar, Cement, &c. For The Materials, &c., Used In This Business, See The Articles Brick, Bricklayer, :mortar, Tiles, Cement, &c. The First Thing To Be Itttended To, In Bricklaying, Is To Dig Trenches For ...

Bridge
Bridge, A Structure Of Wood, Stone, Brick, Iron, Or Other Material, Raised Over It River, Pond, Lake, Or Any Intervening Space, For The Purpose Of A Convenient Mode Of Passage For Men Or Animals. The Extreme Supports Of A Bridge Are Called The Butmcnt$, Or Abutments. See Abutment. If Composed ...

Brunellesciii
Brunellesciii, Pilaw, The Son Of A Notary, Born At Florence In 1377, Was At First Designed For The Bar; But Not Liking That Profession, He Was Apprenticed To A Goldsmith. Ills Genius, However, Turned Him To The Study Of Sculpture, Geometry, Mid Architecture. The First Model By Which He Ll,rined ...

Building
Building, In General, Is A Mass Formed By The Junction Of' Materials. When A Building Is Stationary, And Erected For Dwelling In, Or For Some Useful Purpose Or Ornament, It Is Called An Edifice. Those Who Intend To Build, Should Make Choice Of An Architect Who Is Known To Be ...

Buttress
Buttress, An Erection Serving To Support A Wall Or Other Building, Which Is Either Too High Otherwise To Main Tain Its Position. Or Is Pressed Against From The Other Side By An Adventitious Force. Buttresses Are So Frequent In Gothic Architecture As To Become A Marked And Principal Feature In ...

Byzantine Architecture
Byzantine Architecture, A Style Of Architec Ture Bordering On The Romanesque, Which Prevailed In Geece.and Its Dependencies During The Early Ages Of Chris T Hni I T Y. This Style May Be Said To Have Commenced With The Estab Lishment Of The Eastern Empire, When Constantine Trans Ferred The Seat ...

Ca R V Ed
Ca R V Ed Work, All Those Planes, Or Other Surthces Which Are Cut Into Ornaments, Representing, In Relief Or In Recession, Foliages, Animals, Utensils, Historical Events. &c. Mouldings Are Generally Carved With Leaves, Honeysuckles, Lions' Heads, Beads, Egg And Tongue, Egg And Dart, Guilluches, Reeds, Flutes, &e. Tori Are ...

Caaba
Caaba, A Part Of The Temple Of Mecca, To Which The Mahometans Principally Address Themselves In Prayer. It Consists Of A Stone Edifice, Nearly Square, And Is Said, By The Followers Of Mahomet, To Have Been First Built By Abraham And His Son Ishmael. The Word Is Arabic, Caaba, And ...

Caisson
Caisson, In Water-building, A Large Chest Of Strong Timber, Made Watertight, And Used In Large And Rapid Rivers For Building The Pier Of A Bridge. The Bottom Consists Of A Grating Of Timber, So Contrived As To Be Detached From The Sides When Necessary. The Ground Under The Intended Pier ...

Camber Beams
Camber Beams, Those Which Are Cut With An Obtuse Angle On The Upper Edge, Forming A Declivity Each Way From The Middle Of Their Length ; They Are Used In Truncated Roofs, Where, After Being Covered With Boards, The Boards Are Again Covered With Lead, In Order To Discharge The ...