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Encyclopedia of Architecture by Peter Nicholson (1852)

Colossis
Colossi's, At Rhodes. A Celebrated Statue Of Apollo, Made Of Brass, Popularly Supposed To Have Been Erected Over The Entrance Of The Harbour In Such Manner That A Eliot Stood On Each Pier, And Ships Passed Dirt Sigh Its Extended Logs. This Has Left An Account, Was Begim Hw A ...

Column
Column, In The Orders Of Classic Architecture, Consists Of A Conic Or Colloidal Frustum, Called The Shaft, Tapering Upwards In The Manner Of A Tree, With An Assemblage Of Parts At The Upper Extremity, Termed The Capital, And With Sometimes Another Assemblage Of Parts At The Lower Extremity, Called The ...

Column
Column (latin, Derived From Cobtmen, A Post, Or Supporter) In A General Sense, A Vertical Support Of A Body, Or Portion Of A Building. The Use Of Columns Is Of Very Early Date, As We Hear Of Their Application Hot H In The Temple Of Solomon, And In The Palace ...

Columns
Columns Are Variously Named, According To Their Mate Rials, Construction, Formation, Decoration, Disposition, And Destination. I. Columns, According To Their Materials, Are, Moulded, Fusilde,..transparent, Scagliola, Masonic, Or Wooden. When A Column Is Made By Cementing Gravel And Flints Of Different Colours, It Is Called A Moulded Column. Tlw Art Of ...

Compartment Ceiling
Compartment Ceiling, A Name Given To All Ceilings Divided Into Panels, Surrounded With Mouldings. There Are Many Beautiful Ancient Compositions Of This Kind Applied To The Intradoses Of Cylindrical And Spherical Vaulting, And To The Soflits Of The Porticos Of Temples; As May Be Seen In The Pantheon And The ...

Conclave
Conclave (from The Latin) A Room In The Vatican, Wherein The Cardinals Used To Meet To Choose A Pope. This Room Was, In Fact, A Range Of Small Cells Or Apartments, Stand Ing In A Line The Galleries And Hall Of The Vatkan. The Word Was Also Used By The ...

Concrete
Concrete, The Name Given To A Composition, Variously Made, But In General Use Among Architects As An Artificial Foundation Fin- Buildings. 'flue Convenience Of Obtaining A Firm And Solid Bottom By The Formation Of It Compact Mass,. Concrete ; And The Faeility With Which This Composition Is Made And Used, ...

Concrete Foundation
Foundation, Concrete. In Walling, The Bedding Joints Have Most Commonly An Hori Zontal Position In The Face Of The Work, And This Disposition Ought Always To Take Place When The Top Of The Wall Termi Nates In An Horizontal Plane Or Line. In Bridge Building, And In The Masonry Of ...

Conduit
Conduit (from The French) A Canal, Or Pipe, For The Conveyance Of Water, Or Other Fluid Matter ; An Aqueduct. The Earth Is Full Of Natural Conduits, For The Passage Of Waters, Which Give Rise To Springs, And Of Vapours Which Generate Metals And Minerals. Artificial Conduits For Water Are ...

Conic Sections
Conic Sections, The Curves Formed By The Intersection Of A Circular Cone And A Plane, The Former Being Either Oblique Or Right. The Works Of Apollonius And Archimedes Are The First In Which These Sections Were Treated Of ; And Their History Is Nothing Hut That Of The Addition Of ...

Conoid
Conoid, (from The Greek, Icor/v/4(5in Partaking Of The Figure (.,f A Cone), A Figure Generated By The Revolution Of A Conic Section Round One Of Its Axes. There Are Three Kinds Of Colloids, Viz., The Elliptical, The Hyperbolical, And The Pa•a Bolical ; Which Are Sometimes Otherwise Denominated, Ellip Soid, ...

Conservatory
Conservatory (from The Latin. Conserro, To Keep) May Lie Defined Generally As A Place For Preserving Anything In It State Desired, As From Loss, Decay Or Injury ; In This Sense, Granaries For Keeping Corn, Ice-houses, May Be Called Conservatories. In Gardening. The Word Conservatory Is So Frequently Eon Fmnaded ...

Constriction
Con'stri'ction (latin, Construe, To Heap Up Into One) The Erection Or Disposition Of Several Separate Parts In Such A Manlier, As To Fi Win A Perfi-et And Compact Whole. A Good Knowledge Of The Principles Of Construction, Forms An Essential Item In The Qualification Of An Architect. The Principles Of ...

Construction
Construction, The Art Of Desoribing A Diagram Or Scheme From Given Data. In Geometrical Constructions, The Accuracy Of The Diagram Depends Upon That Of The Points By Which The Lines Constitut Ing The Figure Are Found. It Is, Therefore, Of The Utmost Consequence To Ascertain The Situation Of Points Correctly ...

Constructive Carpentry
Constructive Carpentry Shows The Method Of Reducing Wool Into Firms. And Joining The Parts, As Directed By The Rides Id' Descriptive Carpentry. Or By The Laws Of Strength. And The;eby Limning, A Complete It Is Much To Be Regretted That The First Principles Of This Department Of The Art Are ...

Coping
Coping, In The Pointed Styles Of Architecture, Is Either Inclined Upon The Faces, Or Plumb. When Inclined Upon The Faces, The Sides Of The Vertical Section Are The Sides Of An Equilateral Triangle, Whose Base Is Horizontal. This Sort Of Coping Is Sometimes In One Inclined Plane, Terminated With An ...

Cornice
Cornice (front The Corona, A Crowning) Any Nn Wide.] Projection Which Crowns Or Finishes The Part To \alden It Is Affixed ; Thus We Have The Cornice. An Order. Of 1 Pedestal, Of A Hull,. Of A Pier, Of A Door, Of A Window, &e. Co»nicn Ax Order. A Secondal'v ...

Corollary
Corollary 3.—h Hence All The Properties That Have Been Demonstrated Of Three Forces Acting Upon A Body Supposed Void Of Weight, Will Equally Flew From A Heavy Body Sup Ported By Two Strings, By Substituting The Weight Of The Body For The Middle Force; And Hence, It' The Direction Of ...

Cottage
Cottage, A Name Mostly Applied To A Small House, Erected For The Use And Accommodation Either Of The Farm Labourer. Or Those Engaged In Some Other Occupation, But More Generally Of Those Employed In Agriculture. The Word Cottage Is Also Used In Modern Parlance To Designate A Small Elegant Residence, ...

Cross
Cross, A Figure Consisting Of Four Branches, At Right Angles To Each Other; Or A Geometrical Figure, Consisting Of Five Rectangles, Each Side Of One Angle Being Common With One Side Of Each The Other Four. The Cross, As The Most Prevalent Symbol Of The Christian Religion, Was Often Introduced ...

Cross Grained
Cross-grained Wood Its Fibres In Contrary Directions To The Surface, And Which Therefore Cannot Be Made Perfectly Smooth By The Operation Of The Plane, Without Either Turning The Plane Or The Stuff This Most Frequently Arises From A Twisted Disposition Of The Fibres In The Act Of Growing. ()loss Nirl.tiplication, ...

Crypt
Crypt, According To Vitruvius, The Under Part Of A Build Ing, Answering Nearly To Our Cellar. The Term Is More Particularly Applied To A Vaulted Apart Ment Beneath A Church, Either Entirely, Or Partly Under Ground. Crypts Owe Their Origin To The Circumstance Of The Early Christians Being Compelled, For ...

Cscq A Aq
Cs:cq= A A Q Cq: C B =aq:pb:lk=aq:c N Therefore, By Equality, Co:cb Ad: Fn Or, 13 0 : A L = Cy:c1: That Is, The External Forces Are Reciprocally Proportional To The Perpendiculars Drawn From The Prop On The Lines Of Their Direction. This Proposition Is Fertile In Consequences, ...

Curb Roof
Curb Roof, A Roof Formed Of Four Contiguous Planes, Of Which Each Two Have An External Inclination, The Ridge Being The Line Of Concourse Of The Two Middle Planes, And The Highest Of The Three Lines Of Concourse. This Construction Is Frequently Denominated A Jlansa•d Roof, Mansard Being The Name ...

Curve
Curve, A Line, Such That Only One Straight Line Can Be Made To Touch, Without Cutting It, When The Straight Line Is Extended On Both Sides Of The Point Of Contact ; Or A Curve Is A Line In Which, It' A Point Be Taken, Only One Straight Line Can ...

Cyclograph
Cyclograph, (from The Greek, Trutta,og, A Circle. And Yoacbetv, To Describe) In Practical Geometry. An Instrument For Describing The Arc Of A Circle To Any Chord And Versed Sine; But Chiefly Used In Flat Segments, Or Those Whose Curvatures Approach To Straight Lines. There Are Several Constructions Of Cyelographs, Of ...

Cylinder
Cylinder, (from The Greek Av)ardetv, To Roll) A Solid Formed By Moving A Straight Line In The Periphery Of A Circle, Parallel To Another Straight Line, Which Passes Through The Centre, And Which Makes Any Given Angle With The Plane Of The Circle. Until The Line Come Again Into Its ...

Cylindroid
Cylindroid, (from Taatvopog, Cylinder, And Etdoc,form) A Solid Of Such Property, That All Sections Parallel To Either End, Are Equal And Similar Ellipses, And That A Straight Line, Called The Axis, Will Pass Through The Centre Of The Ellipses. All The Axal Sections Of A Cylindroid, And Every Section Parallel ...

Cyzicum Marmor
Cyzicum Marmor, A Species Of Marble, So Called By The Ancients, From The Great Use Made Of It By A Statuary Named Cyzicus. It Was White, With Fine Narrow Veins Of Black, And Was Also Called Proconnessium. Dado (an Italian Word, Signifying A Die), A Term For The Die Or ...

Dairy
Dairy, The Name Usually Given To The Place Where The Milk Of Cows Is Kept, And Converted Into Butter Or Cheese. The Occupation Is Sometimes Called Dairying ; And The Land Hich Is Chiefly Appropriated To Feed Coos For This Purpose, Is Called A Dairyfirm. " A Observes A Writer ...

Deafening
Deafening, In Plastering, A Term Used In Scotland, For Pugging, Which See. Deal (from The Dutch, Deel) The Wood Of The Fir-tree, As Cut Up For The Use Of Building, Which Is Of Two Kinds, Yellow And White. Deals Are Chiefly Imported From Christiana. And Other Parts Of Norway ; ...

Decimal Arithmetic
Decimal Arithmetic, The Art Of Computing By Fractions Whose Denominator Is 10, 100, &e... Decimal Fractions Differ From Vulgar Fractions In This ; That The Denominator Is Not Written ; Instead Of Writing -a, Or Ye,„ The Fraction Would Be Written Decimally, .4 Or .15. The Decimal Point Before It ...

Decoration External
Decoration External, The Building Act, (7 And Victoria, Cap. 84), Requires. That In External Decorations, Every Coping, Cornice, Facia, Window - Dressing, Portico, Balcony, Balustrade, Or Other External Decoration Or Projec Tion Whatsoever, To Any Building Now Or Hereafter To He Built, Or To Any Addition Or Enlargement Of Any ...

Decorum Or Decor
Decorum. Or Decor, In Architecture, Is The Suitableness Of A Building, And The Several Parts And Ornaments Thereof, To The Station And Occasion. " It Consists," Says Vitruvius, (book I. Chap 2.). " In The Proper Appearance Of A W Ork, And Its Being Compounded Of Approved And Authorized Parts. ...

Definition
Definition, (dejinire, To Mark Out A Boundary), Is The Process Of Stating The Exact Meaning Of A Word,by Means Of Other Words, Or An Enumeration Of The Principal Attributes Of A Thing, In Order To Convey Or Explain Its Nature ; Thus, A Circle Is Defined To Be A Figure ...

Definitions 1
Definitions.-1. An Oriyinal Object Is Any Object What Ever, Which Is Rendered The Subject Of Picture. 2. Original Planes Or Lines Are The Surthees Or Lines Of Original Objects. Perspectire Plane Is The Surface On Which A Picture Is Delineated. It May Be Here Observed, That Painters Regard The Frame ...

Demonstration
Demonstration, (from The Latin) In Mathematics, A Method Of Reasoning, Whereby The Truth Of An Assertion Is Shown By Two, Or A Series Of Propositions, Whose Truth Is Already Established. Thus The 47th Proposition Of The First Book Of Euclid Demonstrates A Certain Property Of A Right-angled Triangle, On The ...

Denderati
Denderati, The Tentyra Of The Ancients, A Ruined Town Of Upper Egypt, Celebrated For Its Temple, Which Is One Of The Most Splendid Remains Of Antiquity In All Egypt. Dr. Richardson, Belzoni, And Others, Have Given Descriptions Of This Temple, Which The First-mmed Traveller Considers To Have Been Erected In ...

Dentils
Dentils, (from The Latin, Dens, A Tooth) A Row Of Similar And Equal Solids In A Cornice, Disposed At Equal Intervals, Each Presenting Fur Sides Of A Rectangular Prism, The Sides Parallel To The Vertical Face, And The One Parallel To The Soffit, Being Attached To The Vertical And Horizontal ...

Description Of One And A Quarter Inch
Description Of One-and-a-quarter Inch Doors. No. Of Rate Per Panelsft. Super. 2. Both Sides Square .06 4. Both Sides Square .07 6. Both Sides Square .08 2. Quirk, Ovolo, And Bead Front, And Square Back . . .1 4. Quirk, Ovolo, And Bead Front, And Square Back . . .11 ...

Descriptive Carpentry
Descriptive Carpentry, The Art Of Forming A Diagram On A Plane By The Rules Of Geometry, In Order To Construct Any Piece Of Carpentry Of A Known Property, From Certain Given Dimensions Of The Thing To Be Constructed. This Branch Is Only The Application Of Stereography To Carpentry : And, ...

Descriptive Geonetry
Descriptive Geonetry, The Art Of Representing A Definite Body Upon Two Planes, At Right Angles With Each Other, By Lines Finning Perpendicularly To The Planes From All The Points Of The Concourse Of Every Two Contiguous Sides Of The Body, And From All Points Of Its Contour ; And, Vice ...

Design
Design, (design°, Latin ; Dessein, French), An Original Drawing Of A Building To Be Executed, Comprehending The Invention, Composition, And Arrangement Of The Whole. A Design Includes Plans, Elevations. And Sections Of The Building Intended To Be Carried Into Execution, Besides Other Drawings Of Details, Or Parts At Large. The ...

Digging
Digging Is Performed By The Solid Yard Of 27 Cubic Feet. In Soft Ground, Where Only Emitting With The Spade Is Necessary, A Man Will Throw Up A Cubic Yard In An Hour, Or 10 Cubic Yards In A Day. Ifut If Hacking Be Necessary, An Additional Man Will Be ...