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Encyclopedia of Architecture by Peter Nicholson (1852)

Lacunaria Or Lacunars Lacunaris
Lacunaris, Lacunaria Or Lacunars, In Architecture, The Panels Of Coffers Formed On The Ceilings Of Apartments, And Sometimes On The Soffits Of The Corona Of The Ionic, Corinthian, And Composite Orders. In The Temple Of Minerva At Athens. The Lacunars Are Placed Immediately Above The Frieze Within The Portico, And ...

Lath
Lath, A Slip Of Wood Used In Plastering, Tiling, And Slating. These Are What Festus Calls Ambrices ; In Other Latin Writers They Are Denominated Templa ; And By Gregory Of Tours, Liyaturcc. In Plastering, The Narrower The Laths Are, The Better They Are For The Purpose, So That They ...

Laver
Laver. The Basin Or Vessel, Placed In The Court Of The Jewish Tabernacle, Where The Officiating Priests Washed Their Hands, And Feet, And Cleansed The Entrails Of Victims. Lawn,:m Open Space Of Short-grass Ground, In The Front Of A Residence, Or In A Garden, Park, Or Other Pleasure Gromid. These, ...

Lazaretto
Lazaretto, Or, Lazaa-house, A Public Building, In Manner Of An Hospital. For The Reception Of Poor Sick : Or In Some Countries, An Edifice, Or Sometimes It Ship, Appointed For Persons Coming From Places Suspected Of The Plague, To Per Form Quarantine. The Name " Lazaretto," Is Derived From St. ...

Lazzari Bramante
Bramante, Lazzari, [(tams°, A Celebrated Archi Tect. Born At Castel Durante, (or According To Some Accounts, At Femagnano,) In The Province Of Urbino, About The Year 1444. The Tinnily Of Which He Was A Branch, Was Poor, Though Respectable, By Whom He Was Designed For A Painter : His Early ...

Level
Level, A Mathematical Instrument, Used For Drawing A Line Parallel To The Horizon And Continuing It Out At Pleasure, And By This Means, For Finding The True Level, Or The Difference Of Ascent Or Descent Between Any Two Places, For Conveying Water, Levelling The Surface Of Floors, And For Various ...

Libraizy
Libraizy, An Edifice Or Apartment Destined For Holding A Considerable Number Of Books Placed Regularly On Shelves ; Or The Books Themselves Lodged In It. Some Authors Refer The Origin Of Libraries To The Ilebrews; And Observe, That The Care Those People Took For The Preservation Of Their Sacred Books, ...

Lighthouse
Lighthouse, A Marine Building, Erected For The Pur Pose Of Exhibiting A Light, To Warn Seamen In The Night Of Their Approach To Any Sand, Or Insulated Ruck: As Those On South Foreland, Flamborough Head, The Eddystone, &c. ; Or A Building Erected At The Entrance Of A Harbour, To ...

Lobby
Lobby, (from The German Lanbe,) A Small Hall Or Wait Ing-room, Or The Entrance Into A Principal Apartment, Where There Is A Considerable Space Between It And A Portico Or Ves Tibule, But The Length Or Dimensions Will Not Allow It To Be Considered As A Vestibule Or Ante-room. Lock, ...

Lombardic Architecture
Lombardic Architecture, A Of Architec Ture Prevalent In Italy From The Commencement Of The Seventh To The Thirteenth Century ; It Succeeded The Debased Roman, And Forms The Intermediate Link Between It And The Gothic. It Derives Its Name From The Circumstance Of Its Prevalence During The Supremacy Of The ...

London Bridge
London Bridge Was Built Somewhat To The West Of The Site Formerly Occupied By Old London Bridge, An Antiquated Stone Structure, That Was Erected About The Beginning Of The 13th Century, By Peter Of Colechurch, Who Combined The Professions Of Architect And Priest : He Died In The Year 1205, ...

Machine
Machine, Signifies Anything Used To Augment Or To Regu Late Moving Forces Or Powers; Or It Is Any Instrument Em Ployed To Produce Motion, In Order To Save Either Time Or Iltrce. The Word Is Of Greek Origin, And Implies Machine, Invention,art ; It Is Therefore Properly Applied To Any ...

Magazine
Magazine. Powder, A Building Constructed For Keeping Large Quantities Of Powder. These Magazines Were Formerly Towers Erected In The Town-walls ; But Many Inconveniences Attending This Situation Of Them, They Are Now Placed In Different Parts Of The Town. They Were At First Constructed With Gothic Arches; But M. Vauban, ...

Marble
Marble, A Variety Of Lime-stone, Of So Compact A Texture As To Adndt Of A Beautiful Polish. The Difrerent Kinds Of Marble Are Infinite, Therefore Any Attempt To Describe Them In Detail Would Necessarily Occupy Inueh Nnire Space Than We Can Allow To This Article : They All Agree In ...

Marble_2
Marble, Polishiny Of. The Art Of Cutting And Polishing Marble Was, Of Course, Known To The Ancients, Whose Mode Of Proceeding Appears To Have Been Nearly The Same With That Employed At Present ; Except, Perhaps, That They Were Unac Quainted With Those Superior Mechanical Means Which Now Greatly Facilitate ...

Masonry
Masonry, The Art Of Preparing Stones, So As To Tooth Or Indent Them Into Each Other, And Form Regular Surfaces, Either For Shelter, Convenience, Or Defence: As The Habitations Of Men, Animals, The Protection And Shelter Of Goods, &c. The Chief Stone Used In London Is Portland, Which Comes From ...

Materials
Materials. (from The French, Materiel.) In Architec Ture, The Different. Kinds Of Bodies, Or Substances, Used In The Construction Of Edifices, As Wood, Stone, Brick, Mortar, &c. It Is Chiefly Frmit The Valuable Work Of Vitruvius, That We Are Furnished With Information Respecting The Nature Of The Niaterials Used By ...

Mathematics
Mathematics (from The Greek Uathiltatth*. The Science Which Treats Of The Ratic And Comparison Of Quantities, Whence It Is Defined The Science (f Ratios ; Sonic Writers Call It The Science Of Quantities ; But This Is Inacurate, Since Quan Tities Themselves Are Not The Subject Of Mathematical Investi Gation, ...

Measure
Measure, In A Legal, Commercial, And Popular Sense, Denotes A Certain Quantity Or Proportion Of Anything Bought, Sold. Valued, Or The Like. It Denotes Also A Vessel Of Capacity Employed In Measuring Grain And Other Articles: The Fiairth Part Of It Peek. The Regnlation Of Weights And Measures Ought Certainly ...

Measuring Of
Measuring Of St'lerficies, Or Quantities Of Two Dimen• Si)(ns, Is Variously Delunninated According To Its Subjects: When Lands Are The Subject, It Is Called Geodesy, Or Sixineying; In Other Cases, Simply Measuring. The Instruments Used Arc The Ten-foot Rod, Chain. Compass, Circumferentor, &e. Measunixo Of Solids, Or Quantities Of Three ...

Mechanical Carpentry
Mechanical Carpentry Is So Called From The Principles Of Mechanics Being Employed In The Construction Of Truss Framing, Or Other Parts Of The Art ; While Cosstituctive Carpentry Sip 1ws The Rules Fur Cutting And Framing The Timbers According To The Proposed Design. See That Article. The Mechanical Principles Of ...

Mechanical Powers
Mechanical Powers, Such Machines As Are Used For Raising Greater Weights, Or Overcoming Greater Resis Tances, Than Could Be Effected By The Natural Strength Without Them ; The Power Or Strength Being Applied To One Part Of The Machine, And Another Part Of The Machine Applied To The Weight Or ...

Member
Member (from The French) Any Part Of An Edifice ; Or Any Moulding In A Collection. Hi Ensuration (from The Latin Mensura, Measure Ment) That Branch Of Mathematics Which Is Employed In Ascertaining The Extension, Solidities, And Capacities Of Bodies ; And In Consequence Of Its Very Extensive To The ...

Mensuration Of Artificers Worfcs
Mensuration Of Artificers' Worfcs. All Such Works, Whether Superficial Or Solid, Are Computed By The Rules Proper For The Figure Of Them. The Most Common Instruments For Taking The Measures Are, A Five-feet Rod, Divided Into Feet And Quarters Of A Foot ; And A Rule, Either Divided Into Inches, ...

Meridian
Meridian, In Geography, A Great Circle, As Paqd, Passing Through The Poles Of The Ear Th P And O, And Anv Given Place At Z. So That The Plane Of The Terrestrial Meridian Is In The Plane Of The Celestial One. Hence, 1. As The Meridian Invests The Whole Earth, ...

Mexican
Mexican Al Ichitecture, Is Remarkable Chiefly As Forming A Specimen Of The Style And Mode Of Building Adopted By The Aborigines Of The New World. Their Resem Blance To Some Of The Ancient Edifices And Forms Of Building Prevalent In The Eastern Continent Is Curious, And Worthy Of Comment. The ...

Middle Quarters Of Columns
Middle-quarters Of Columns. Plan Or Horizontal Section Of A Column Is Divided Into Four Quadrants, By Lines Not At Right Angles To The Front, But At An Angle Of 45 Degrees Therewith, The Four Quarters Are Called The Middle Quarters. Mile (from The Latin. Milk, A Thousand) A Long Measure, ...

Module
Module, (from The Latin, Modulus, A Pattern,) In Archi Tecture, A Certain Measure Taken At Pleasure, For Regulating The Proportions Of Columns, And The Symmetry Or Distribution Of The Whole Building. Architects Usually Choose The Diameter, Or Semi-diameter, Of Tire Bottom Of The Column, For Their Module; And This They ...

Monasteuy
Monasteuy, A Convent, Or House, Built For The Recep Tion Of Religious Devotees ; Whether It Be Abbey, Priory, Nun Nery, Or The Like. The Term Is Only Properly Applied To The Houses Of Monks, Friars, And Nuns. The Rest Are More Pro Perly Called Raigiorts Houses. See Abbey. '1 ...

Moorish Architecture
'moorish Architecture. A Kind Of Mosaic \yoh: Was Common On The Exteriors Of Some Of The Mediaeval Churches Of Italy, As The Duomo At Pisa, Where The Walls Of The Façade Are Decorated With A Sort Of Pattern In Black And White Colours, Brilliant Reds And Hiles Being Interspersed Occasionally. ...

Moresque Nourish
Nourish, Moresque, Arabian, Or Saracenic Arcm Tecture.—the Style Of Building Indifferently Designated By Any One Of The Above Titles, Is That Which Was Practised By The Arabs, Or ,iloors, And Which, Owing To The Migratory Condition Of That Race, And To Their Widely-spread Influence, Prevailed In Many Parts Of The ...

Mortar
Mortar, I Lymta Cue. Someti Meg Also Callvd I :wean Cement Is The Composition Used Ill Walls Under, Or Exposed To, The Action Of Water, Such As Those Of Harbours, Docks, &e. The Material Best Adapted To The Tnanufaeture Of Hydrenlic Mortar Is The Poorer Stills Of Limestone, Such As ...

Mouldings
Mouldings, In Architecture, Prismatic Or Annular Solids, Formed By Plane And Curved Surfaces, And Employed As Orna Ments. All Parallel Sections Of Straight Mouldings, All The Sections Of Annular Mouldings, Made By A Plane At The Same Inclination To The Axis, And, In General, All Sections Of Mouldings Made By ...

Mullions
Mullions, In Pointed Architecture, All Those Parts Of Windows Which Divide The Light Into And Are Either Curved Or Straight. Vertical Mullions Are Called Munnions ; And Those Which Run Horizontally Are Called Transow. The Whole Of The Mullions Of A Window Above The Springing Of The Arch Are Called ...

Muse
Muse, A Habitation, Or A Building Eonstrneted For Shel Tering A Man's Person And Goods From The Inelemeneies Of The Weather, And The Injuries Of Ill-disposed Persons. Houses Differ In Magnitude, Being Of Two Or Three, And Four Stories ; In The Materials Of Which They Consist. As Wool, Brick, ...

Nails
Nails (fom The Saxon Nagl) In Building, &c. Small Metal Line-spikes, Serving To Bind Or Fasten The Parts Together, &e. The Several Kinds Of Nails Are Very Numerous ; As Back Nails, Wade With Flat Shanks To Hold Fast, And Not ()pen The Wood. Clamp-nails, Proper To Fltsten The Clamps ...

Nonaian Architecture
Nonaian Architecture, A Style Of Architecture Closely Allied To The Debased Roman Rumples Of The Ea-tern And Western Empires, And With Them May He Eimveniently Included Under The General Title Of Romanesque. It Can Scarcely, However, Be Ranked As A Division Of Equal Impfirt Mice With Either The Byzantine Or ...

Oasis
Oasis, Is The Appellation Given To Those Fertile Spots, Watered By Springs And Covered With Verdure, Which Are Scattered About The Great Sandy Deserts Of Africa. In Arabic They Arc Called Wadys. The Arabic And The Greek Name Seem To Contain The Same Root, And Possibly The Word May Be ...

Obelisk
Obelisk, (front The Latin, Obeliscus) A Quadrangular Pyramid, Very Slender And High ; Raised As An Ornament In Some Public Place, Or To Show Some Stone Of Enormous Size ; And Frequently Charged With Inscriptions And Hiero Glyphic-4. Borel Derives The Word From The Greek, Ol31,:tog, A Spit, Broach, Spindle, ...

Observations On
Observations On Avekiagino Surfaces, Bounded On One Or On Two Opposite Sides By A Curve. In The Mensuration Of Superficies Bounded By Curves, The Com Mon Method Of Taking The Average, Or Mean, Of Any Number Of Ordinates, By Adding All The Ordinates Together, And Dividing By Their Number, And ...

Obtuse Section Of A
Obtuse Section Of A (tine, A Name Given To The Hyper Bola, By Ancient Geometricians, Because They Considered It Only In Shill A Cone, Whose Suction Through The Axis Was An Obtuse-angled Triangle. (wu I; It:, I11 Painting,, A Colour Prepared From A Species Of Earth, Also Termed Ochre, Composed ...

Odillions
Odillions, (french,) In Architecture, Mut Tiles Carved Into Consoles, Placed Under The Soffit Or Bottom Of The Drip Of The Corona In The Corinthian And Roman Orders, For Support Ing The Larmier And Sima, Or Appearing To Perform The Office Of Support. In Grecian Architecture, The Ionic Order Is Without ...

Olympian Games
Olympian Games, The Chief Of The Four Great National Festivals Of The Greeks, Were Celebrated At Olympia, It Sacred Spot On The Banks Of The Alpheus, Near Elis, Every Fifth Year. The Exact Interval At Which It Recurred, Was One Of Forty-nine And Fifty Lunar Months Alternately ; So That ...