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Paving Brick and Paving Brick Clays of Illinois by Ira Osborn Baker (1908)

Absorption Test
Absorption Test. There Has Been A Change Of View In Reference To The Value, Applicability. And Purpose Of The Absorption Test. In The Early Experience With Brick Pavement, Soft And Porous Brick Were Used And The Fear Was Expressed That The Brick Would Crumble And Disintegrate Under The Effect Of ...

Amended Specifications For The
Amended Specifications For The Rattler Test. Present N. B. M. A. Test. 1. Dimensions Of The Machine.—the Standard Machine Shall Be 28 Inches In Diameter And 20 Inches In Length, Measured Inside The Rattling Chamber. Other Machines May Be Used, Varying In Diameter Between 26 And 30 Inches, And In ...

Brick
Brick. Nature Of The Problems Involved—in Holland Brick Has Been Used For Street Paving For More Than A Century, And In The United States For Over Thirty Years. During This Period, Ceramics, Or The Study Of Clay Working, Has Been Developed As A Science To Such An Extent As To ...

Carboniferous
Carboniferous. Mississippian Or Lower Carboniferous.—at The Close Of The Devonian That Portion Of The State South Of The Latitude Named Received A Heavy Deposit Of Limestones, Sandstones, And Shales Aggregating 150 To 200 Feet In Thickness, Called The Lower Carboniferous Or. Mississippian Series. Worthen Divides This Series Into Five Groups ...

Changes In Sedimentary Rocks
Changes In Sedimentary Rocks. Emergence Of Sedimentary Rocks.—§ 26. Owing To Changes Which Are Taking Place In The Earth's Interior, The Altitude Of Most Points On The Surface Has Changed Repeatedly, And Similar Changes Are Now Tak Ing Place. The Gulf Coast Of The United States, The Coast Of Norway, ...

Classification Of Clays
Classification Of Clays. It Has Seemed Best To Carry On The Discussion Of The General Problems Involved In The Geology Of Clays As We Have Done In The Preceding Para-. Graphs And Then Discuss The Characteristics Of Each Of The Groups Of Clays And The Conditions Under Which They Were ...

Clays Studied Which Are
Clays Studied Which Are Suitable For Use In The Manufacture Of Paving Brick. The Clays Especially Studied For The Purposes Of This Report Are Listed Below. They Are, With Few Exceptions, Now Being Used In The Manu Facture Of Pavers Of Proved Excellence. While The Writer Believes That Most Counties ...

Complexity Of Mineralogical Composition
Complexity Of _mineralogical Composition Of Clay. In The Section, The "geology Of Clays," Professor Rolfe Has Set Forth In Detail The Most Accepted Theory Of The Origin Of Clays, The Effective Agencies Of Rock Decomposition, And The Manner In Which These Agencies Operate. It Has Been Shown Clearly That The ...

Construction And Care Of
Construction And Care Of Brick Pavements. It Is Not The Purpose Of This Article To Give A Detailed Description Of The Various Operations Connected With The Construction Of A Brick Pavement, Since Those Having The Direction Of Such Operations Are Al Ready Familiar With The Work Or Can Easily Find ...

Construction Of Subgrade
Construction Of Subgrade. It Is Necessary To Say That The Subgrade Is The Ultimate Support Of Any Pavement, And That Both The Cost And The Efficiency Of A Pavement Depends Upon The Supporting Power Of The Soil Upon Which It Rests. There Are Only Two Ways Of Increasing Or Supplementing ...

Cross Breaking Test
Cross-breaking Test. The Cross-breaking Test Is For The Purpose Of Determining The General Strength Of The Brick; Incidentally It Gives Evidence Of The Toughness And The Hardness Of The Brick. It Indicates The Ability To Resist Cross Breaking, Twisting, Or Spalling By Concentrated Loads And Is An Index Of The ...

Crushing Test
Crushing Test. Tests For Crushing Strength Are Open To The Objection That The Results Obtained Are Extremely Variable, Especially As The Method Of Making The Test Is Not Uniform. When The Faces Of The Test Cubes Are Ground Accur Ately To Plane Surfaces, The Results With High-grade Paving Brick Are ...

Decomposition Of Granitoid Rocks
Decomposition Of Granitoid Rocks. General Agents And Processes.—§ 12. All Rocks And Minerals Are Porous, That Is, The Particles Of Which They Are Composed Cannot Lie Against Each Other In Such A Way As To Occupy All The Space, And Hence Openings Or Pores Are Left For The Passage Of ...

Dehydration
Dehydration. Nature Of Process—pure Kaolin, The Basic Clay Substance, Contains In Round Numbers 14 Per Cent Of Water, Chemically Combined. At Ordin Ary Drying Heats The Amount Of This Chemically Combined Water In The Kaolin Is Supposed To Be Unaltered. In Fact, There Is Experimental Evi Dence To Support The ...

Development Of Plasticity In
Development Of Plasticity In The Presence Of Water. Whatever May Be The Fundamental Cause Of This Phenomenon We Call Plasticity, It Is Certain That It Is Manifested Only When Water Is Present. It Has Been Shown That Mere Molecular Attraction Between The Clay Grains And The Water Molecules Is Not ...

Differentiation Between Clays On
Differentiation Between Clays On Basis Of Difference In Rate And Manner Of Decrease In Porosity And Specific Gravity. Importance Of Slow Vitrification—it Is The Consensus Of Opinion Among Those Who Have Given Serious Thought To The Vitrifying Proper Ties Of Ceramic Mixtures, Whether Natural, As Ordinary Clay, Or Artificial, As ...

Discussion Of Tests And
Discussion Of Tests And Comparison Of Qualities. A Comparison Of The Various Tests May Be Made By Studying The Results Of The Extensive Series Of Tests Of Brick Of A Wide Range Of Char Acter And Quality Made At The University Of Illinois For The Department Of Ceramics And State ...

Distribution Arrat
Arrat, Distribution. Keeping In Mind The Brief Descriptions Of The Foregoing Paragraphs, We May Now Divide The State Into The Following Geological Areas, Ordovi Cian, Silurian, Devonian, Lower Carboniferous, Coal Measures, And Cre Taceous Or Tertiary. Ordovician.—this Area Is Roughly Bounded By The Parallel 41 30' And The Meridian 88 ...

Effect Of Physical And
Effect Of Physical And Chemical Properties Of Clays. The Effect Of Carbon In Its Different Forms Has Been Discussed. The Oxidation Of Ferrous Compounds In The Presence And Absence Of Carbon Has Also Been Considered. Certain Other Points Need Be Considered Un Der This Heading. Among These Are: Distribution Of ...

Factors Affecting Rate Of
Factors Affecting Rate Of Fusion. Aiineralogical Composition—synthetical Studies Of The Fusion Of Mix Tures Of Pure Minerals, Have Shown That The Same Chemical Elements, Brought Together As Constituent Parts Of Different Minerals, Produce Mixtures Having Unlike Fusion Periods. The Rate Of Fusion And The Regularity With Which It Progresses, As ...

Filling The Joints
Filling The Joints. The Joints Between The Bricks Or Blocks Should Be Filled To Keep The Brick In The Proper Position, To Lessen The Chipping Of The Edges Of The Brick, And To Prevent Water From Penetrating To The Cushion Coat And To The Foundation. Three Farms Of Filler Are ...

Fineness Of Grain
Fineness Of Grain. By Fineness Of Grain Or Texture Of A Clay Is Meant The Size Of Its Min Eral Particles. Experimental Evidence Indicates That Variation In Grain Controls Many Of The Physical And Pyro-chemical Properties Exhibited By Clays. Plasticity, Shrinkage In Drying And Burning, Tensile Strength, Drying Properties, Rate ...

Formation Of Sedimentary Rocks
Formation Of Sedimentary Rocks And Clays. Erosin And Transportation.—§ 21. As Stated Above, Rain Which Falls Upon The Surface Is Divided Into Three Portions ; One Part Evaporates ; One Sinks Into The Ground; And One Slides Off The Surface Into The Nearest Stream Or Drainage Channel. Water, Like Any ...

Foundation
Foundation. Choice Of Materials—there Are Several Forms Of Foundation Suitable For Brick Pavements, Viz.: Concrete, Gravel, Macadam, A Course Of Brick Laid Fiatwise, Or A Layer Of Plank. Concrete Is By Far The Most Common Foundation ; And Apparently A Plank Foundation Was Never Used Except In A Single City, ...

General Aalysis Of Results
General A\alysis Of Results. The Foregoing Detailed Discussion Of The Various Elements Affecting The Manner In Which Silicate Mixtures Fuse, Has Been Given In Addition To The More General Statements On Pages 214 And 232 So As To Make More Plain The Deductions That Are To Be Drawn From Our ...

Geological Distribution Of Paving
Geological Distribution Of Paving Brick Material In Illinois. What Is A Paving Discussing The Distribution Of Pav Ing Brick Materials It Seems Best To At Least Attempt To Define What A Paving Brick Is. Pages Enough To Make A Fair-sized Library Have Been Written In The Effort To Describe The ...

Geology Of Clays
Geology Of Clays. In Order To Understand The Geology Of Clays It Is Necessary To Think Of The Surface Layers Of The Earth As An Immense Chemical Laboratory In Which Exchanges Are Taking Place On Every Hand, Old Compounds Breaking Down And Being Replaced By New Ones Continually. In This ...

Inspection Of Paving Brick
Inspection Of Paving Brick. In Taking Up The Subject Of Inspection Of Paving Brick It Must Be Ad Mitted That Inspection Is Generally An Unsatisfactory Topic To Both Con Tractor And Municipality. Inspection Is A Difficult Task Requiring Skilled Judgment, Expert Knowledge, Intelligent Action, And Ability Of No Mean Order, ...

Means Of Expressing Fineness
Means Of Expressing Fineness Of Grain. If All The Particles Of Clay Were Considered As Being Spheres Or Cubes Their Superficial Areas Would Be Inversely Proportioned To Their Diameters. The Following Calculations Show This To Be True In Regard To The Sphere : Volume Of A Sphere Is Equal To ...

Methods Of Determination
Methods Of Determination The True Specific Gravity Of The Clays Included In This Report Was Ob Tained By Three Methods: By Seger Volumeter, Using Unburned Bricks; By Pycnometer; By Chemical Balance, Using Unburned Bricks. Determination By Seger's Volumeter Was Used In The Determination Of The Volume Shrinkage, Porosity And Specific ...

Methods Of Measuring Plasticity
Methods Of _measuring Plasticity. General—there Have Been Many Methods Devised For Measuring Plasticity. The Methods Suggested By And Seem To Be The Most Rational Of Any, For In Them The Resistance To Deformation And Amount Of Flow Before Rupture, Two Characteristic Properties Of Plastic Bodies, Are Measured. These Methods Are ...

Notes On Tiie Microscopic
Notes On Tiie Microscopic Stiiucture Of Certain Paving Brick Clays. At Various Stages Of Fusion. In The Hope Of Explaining Some Of The Phenomena Of Simultaneous Decrease In Volume, Porosity And Specific Gravity Without Loss In Weight And To Obtain Some Idea Of The Manner In Which Fusion Takes Place ...

Ordovician
Ordovician. Lower Magnesian.—at The Close Of The Potsdam The Condition Of The Sea Had Become Such That Lime-secreting Animals Could Grow In Abund Ance, But The Waters Were Not Completely Or Continuously Clear. During This Time 100 To 500 Feet Of A Strongly Argillaceous Limestone Was De Posited Over The ...

Original Composition Of Tiie
Original Composition Of Tiie Earth's Crust. Geologists Believe That There Was A Period In The History Of The Earth When Its Entire Surface Was Composed Of Crystalline Rocks Like Those Described And That This Was So Because The Whole Earth Was Then Highly Heated And The Atmosphere Was Many Times ...

Oxidation
Oxidation. Definition Of Terms—"oxidation" And "reduction" Are Chemical Terms Referring Respectively To Taking On And Giving Off Of Oxygen. When A Piece Of Iron Is Rusting It Is Becoming Oxidized, I. E., The Metal (fe) Is Being Converted To An Oxide Of Iron Which Is Red In Color. Iron Rust ...

Physical And Ciiemical Effects
Physical And Ciiemical Effects Of Incomplete Oxidation. Usual Effects—reduction Of Iron And The Consequent Early Fusion Of The Unoxidized Portion Of A Brick Results In The Formation Of A Par Tially Fused Glass Surrounded By A Shell That Has As A Rule Just Begun To Vitrify. Entrapped In This Glass ...

Plasticity
Plasticity. There Is Probably No Property Of Unburned Clay Which Has Been More Widely Discussed Than Plasticity. To Plasticity The Clay Owes Its Re Sponsiveness To Every Touch Of The Potter's Hand And Its Adaptability To The Preservation Of Every Line Of The Artist's Tool; It Is This Quality That ...

Pleistocene
Pleistocene. Glacial Deposits.—after The Close Of The Tertiary The Entire Surface Of The State North Of The Ozarks Except Small Portions At The Northwestern Corner, And In Calhoun County, Was Covered With A Sheet Of Ice Of Great Thickness. This Ice Sheet Came To Us From The Regions Southwest And ...

Porosity
Porosity. The Percentage Of Porosity Expresses The Relation Between The Volume Of Pore Space And The Combined Volume Of The Particles Of Which The Clay Is Composed. It Is The Ratio, In Terms Of Volumes, Of Void Spaces To Solid Particles. If Determined On An Unburned Brick It Would Measure ...

Pro Physical And Chemical Properties
Pro-physical And Chemical Properties Of Ing Brick Clays. Relations—in The Discussion Of The Physical Properties Of Clays It Was Shown That There Is A Possibility Of Making Some Correlations Between The Several Physical Factors. It Was Also Demonstrated That The Physical Properties Affect The Adaptation Of Clays To Processes Of ...

Qualities For A High
Qualities For A High Grade Paving Brick. General.—paving Brick Should Possess The Following Qualities : 1, Toughness, Hardness, And Strength. 2. Uniformity Of Quality Through Out A Given Lot Of Brick. 3. Homogeneity Of Structure And Freedom From Laminations. 4. Weather-resisting Quality. 5. Regularity In Form And Size. These Qualities ...

Qualities Of High Grade
Qualities Of High Grade Paving Brick And Tests Used In Determining Them. The Extensive Use Of Brick For Street Paving Purposes Makes The Formulation Of The Qualities Requisite For A Good Paving Brick A Matter Of Importance To Both Producer And Consumer. Although It May Not Be Difficult To Agree ...

Relation Of Chemical And
Relation Of Chemical And Physical Constitution To Behavior In Fusion. Historical—search In Ceramic Literature Disclosed The Fact That Prac Tically No Data Have Vet Been Published That Have A Direct Bearing On The Relation Of Chemical And Physical Constitution, Behavior Of Clays In Fusion, And Toughness Of The Burned Ware. ...

Relation Of Rate Of
Relation Of Rate Of Absorption To Porosity. Aside From Exposing The Irregularities In Our Method Of Analysis, This Data Gives Evidence Of The Lack Of Relation Of Total Porosity And Rate Of Absorption In The Green Or Unburned Bricks. Since All The Bricks Were Subjected To The Same Oil Immersion ...

Relation Of Tensile Strength
Relation Of Tensile Strength To Fineness Of Grain. Curves Were Plotted From Data Given By Ries', And Also By Beyer And Williams', Showing The Relation Between Fineness Of Grain, As Delineated By The Surface Factor, And Tensile Strength. There Did Not Appear To Be Any Consistent Relation Between These Two ...

Relation Of Volume Shrinkage
Relation Of Volume Shrinkage To Fineness Of Grain. The Volume Shrinkage Of A Clay Is A Reliable Index Of Its Drying Be Havior Only Within Certain Limits. Take For Instance K-14 And H-17, Which Lie Close To The Extremes Of Minimum And Maximum Volume Shrinkage; Both Require Considerable Care In ...

Requirements For Paving Brick
Requirements For Paving Brick. The Rigidity Of The Requirements To Be Inserted In Specifications Or To Be Taken As Standard In Selecting Paving Brick For .a Street Will Depend Upon The Conditions Under Which The Brick Are To Be Used. The Amount Of Traffic And The Methods And Details Of ...

Rftation Of Volume Shrinkage
Rf.t.ation Of Volume Shrinkage To Water In Excess Of That Required To Fill The Pores. It Would Seem That If The Volume Had Been Determined At Regular In Tervals As The Bricks Lost Their Mechanical Water By Evaporation, The Per Centage Up To The Time That The Brick Reached Its ...

Rolling The Pavement
Rolling The Pavement After All Rejected Brick Have Been Removed And The Pavement Has Been Swept, It Is Ready For Rolling, Which Should Be Done With A Steam Roller Weighing From 3 To 6 Tons. A Very Heavy Roller Is Undesirable, At Least In The Beginning Of The Rolling, Since ...