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Paving Brick and Paving Brick Clays of Illinois by Ira Osborn Baker (1908)

Shrinkage In Drying
Shrinkage In Drying. The Amount That A Clay Will Shrink In Drying Is Expressed In Per Cents Of The Unit Length Or Volume. In The First Instance The Shrinkage Would Be Designated As Linear Shrinkage, And In The Second, As Volume Or Cubical Shrinkage. In Table I, Page ??, Will ...

Substances In Clay That
Substances In Clay That Are Affected By Oxidation. In General Terms, The Oxidizable Substances In Clays Are Carbon Com Pounds, Carbonates, Nitrates, Sulphites, Etc. The Most Noteworthy Ox Idizable Substances In Clays Are : Carbon And The Carbon Compounds, Ferrous Carbonate And Ferrous Sulphide. Carbon And The Carbon Compoands—carbon Is ...

Supposed History Of The
Supposed. History Of The Development Of Plasticity Of Clays In Nature. Daubreel, Cushman' And Mellor' Have Disintegrated Feldspar In Water Either By Grinding Or By Boiling. In All Cases, The Liquid In Which The Feldspar Was Ground Contained Alkali In Solution. Mellor Found That Not Only Did The Solution Give ...

Tensile Strength
Tensile Strength. One Of The Vital Factors Affecting The Drying Behavior Of Clays Is Their Cohesion. Many Ways Have Been Devised To Measure This Cohesion, But The Tensile Strength Test Seems To Be The Most Popular. Determinations Of Tensile Strength As Usually Made And Reported, Have So Large A Per ...

Tests For Quality
Tests For Quality. The Main Advantage Of Physical Tests Of Paving Brick Lies In Giving Definite Evidence Having A Bearing Upon The Properties And Qualities Of The Brick. To Make This Evidence Useful, The Relation Of The Method Of Making The Tests And Their Results To The Qualities Thereby Determined ...

Tests Of Paving Bricks
Tests Of Paving Bricks. The Tests Herein Reported Were Made On Paving Brick From Twenty Four Paving Brick Factories In Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Missouri And Kansas. The Samples Of Each Make And Grade Were Selected By Repre Sentatives Of The State Geological Survey At The Yards Of The Factory. An ...

The Brick
The Brick. Character—a Paving Brick Is Simply A Brick Which, Owing To Careful Selection Of The Clay And To Skill In The Manufacture, Is So Hard And Tough That It Will Resist The Crushing And The Abrading Action Of The Traffic. The Brick Should Be Reasonably Perfect In Shape, Should ...

The Rattler Test
The Rattler Test. It May Be Of Interest To Recount Some Of The Efforts Which Have Led Up To The Present Standing Of The Rattler Test. During The Earlier Years' Experience In The Construction Of Brick Pavement The Judgment Of Those In Charge Of The Work Was The Only Guide ...

The Special Action Of
The Special Action Of Ice. Ice As An Eroding And Transporting Agent.—§ 29. In The Preceding Discussion We Have For The Sake Of Simplicity Omitted The Part Which Ice In The Shape Of Glaciers Has Played In The Formation Of Clays. At The Present Time, Especially In Temperate Regions, This ...

Ther3io Chemical And Physical Changes
Ther3io-chemical And Physical Changes During Fusion. It Is Indeed Very Difficult, If Not Impossible, To Determine What The Actual Thermo-chemical Reactions Really Are, Which Take Place In The Fusion Of The Clay Particles, First Between Themselves, And, Secondly, When The Whole Mass Becomes A More Or Less Homogeneous Solution By ...

Ultimate Chemical Composition
Ultimate Chemical Composition. By Ultimate Chemical Composition Is Meant The Percentage By Weight Of The Several Oxides Of The Elements That Occur In Clay Irrespective Of Their Original State Or Combination. Ordinary Chemical Analyses Are Re Ported In Terms Of So Much Silican Oxide, Aluminium Oxide, Calcium Oxide, Etc. All ...

Value Of Chemical Analyses
Value Of Chemical Analyses. Because, In Private Correspondence And On Every Public And Semi-public Oc Casion That Has Afforded Opportunity, The Writer Has Taken A Stand Against The Large Absolute Value And Importance Of Chemical Analysis Of Clays That Is Contrary To Views Popularly Held By Practical Clay. Workers And ...

Value Of Determination Of
Value Of Determination Of Fineness Of Grain. As Before Stated, Fineness Of Grain Is The Probable Cause Of Several Of The Other Properties Exhibited By Clays. Since Fineness Of Grain Is The Cause, And The Other Properties, In A Large Sense, The Effects, The True Significance Of This Determination Can ...

Vii The Calculation Of
Vii. The Calculation Of The Results. The Loss Shall Be Calculated In Per Cents Of The Weight Of The Dry Brick Com Posing The Charge, And No Result Shall Be Considered As Official Unless It Is The Average Of Two Distinct And Complete Tests, Made On Separate Charges Of Brick. ...