THROWING FOR OPERATIONS. When any painful operation is to be performed on an animal, it must be securely fastened. This is done by hobbling and casting the animal, and then securely tying. For operations not requiring a long time, a pen may be rnade, three feet wide six feet long, with strong posts where the limbs will stand. To these the limbs may be securely bound, and the animal may be supported, if necessary, with slings. Secure the head, and he can neither bite nor kick. The manner of throw ing is described in the Horse Owners' Cyclopze dia as follows: Hobbles consist of four broad padded leather straps, provided with strong buckles, and long enough to encircle the pasterns. To each of these an iron ring is stitched, and to one of them a strong, soft rope, six yards in length, is securely attached. Provided with four, or, if possible, five assistants, the operator buckles the hobble with the rope attached to the near foreleg, and the remaining three to the other legs. Then passing the rope through their rings, and through the first also, it is held by three assistants, the nearest of whom stands about a yard from the horse, so as to pull up wards as well as away from him ; a fourth assist ant holds him by the head to keep him quiet, and to be ready to fall on it as soon as he is down, and the fifth stands at his quarters, ready to push him over on his off side. This place is sometimes occupied hy the operator himself when short of hands. Castiug should never be attempted on any hard surface, a thick bed of straw being necessary to prevent injury from the heavy fall wlaich takes place. The hind legs should be brought as far forward as possible before begin ing to pull the rope, and when the men do this they should do it with a will, but without jerk ing, so as to take the horse off his guard, when he will resist much less stoutly than if he is allowed more time. As soon as the legs are drawn up together, the man at the quarters is quite safe from injury, and he may lean forcibly against that part, and force the horse over to the off side, upon which he falls: the assistant at the head keeping that part down, no further strug gling takes place, and he is secured by passing the end of the rope under the hobble rings be tween the fore and hind legs, and securing it vvith a hitch. Something 'more, however, is necessary to be done before any of the usual operations can be performed, as all of the legs are at liberty to a certain extent and the scrotum can not be reached in safety. The following
further precautions must therefore be taken, varying according to the part to be operated on. For castration the horse should be cast on his near side, with a web halter in the usual place of a collar. The rope of the halter is then passed through the ring of the hobble on the off hind leg, and using it as a pulley the foot is drawn forcibly forward beyond the arm and firmly secured to the webbing around the neck, and bringing it back again it may be passed around the thigh above the hock (which should be guarded from friction by a soft cloth or leather), and again secured to the webbing. By these precautions the scrotum is completely exposed, and the hind legs can not be stirred beyond the slight spasmodic twitch which extends to the whole body. To perform any operation on the fore leg it must he taken out of its hobble, and drawn forward upon the straw by a webbing attached to its pastern, where it must be held by an assistant, the horse having little or no power over it in this position. The hind leg is secured in the same way as for castration, unless the fet lock is to be fired, when webbing must be ap plied to the thigh above the hock only. With most horses, however, firing can be performed without casting, by buckling up the fore leg, or by having it held by a competent assistant. When the horse is to be released, the hobbles are quietly unbuckled in succession, beginning with the undermost hind leg. Several improved hobble.s have been invented, but they are suited rather for the veterinary surgeon than for the ordi nary horsemaster, who will only require them for castration and minor operations. The side line is sometimes used for securing one hind leg thus: the long rope and single hobble only are required, the latter being buckled to the hind pastern, which is to be secured. The rope is then passed over the vvithers and brought back around the bosom and the shoulder of the same side as the leg to which it is secured, and then passed inside the first part of the rope. By pulling at the end of this cord the hind leg is drawn up to the shoulder, aud secured there with a bitch, but the plan is not nearly so safe as casting.