HANNIBAL, han'-nH-d/. r. A famous Car thaginian general, born 247 s.c., son of Hamilcar Bares, in whose camp he was reared, and who made him swear undying hatred to the Romans. At his father's death, 229, he was set over the cavalry in Spain, and, at 25, on Hasdrubal's assassination, took command of the Carthaginian army in Spain, 221. In three years of continued suc cess he subdued the Spanish tribes, and took Sagnntum after eight months' siege. The fall of this city, which was an ally of the led to the second Punic war, aro. Hannibal sent one army into Africa, left a second in Spain, and, at the head of a third, marched over the Alps (formorly considered impassable) by, probably, the Little St. Bernard, into Italy, 2r8, where, for sixteen years, he kept the Romans in continual alarm, sweeping with the storm of war over the Italian cities, "as the east wind sweeps over the waves." He inspired such terror that he was designated Di rus Hannibal. He defeated P. Scipio at the Tidnus, and him and his colleague Tib. Sem pronius Longus at the Trebia, z18; Cn. Flaminius at Trasimenus, 217 ; and C. Teren tins Varro and L. Pi:mains Paullus at Canna;, 216; after which great success—though he unaccountably made no attempt to capture Rome—all southern Italy revolted to him. The re-appointment of Q. Fabius Maximus (Cunchitor) coincides with the turn of the war in favour of the Romans, 215. He was re pulsed from Nola at3, and Tarentum 214, but took the latter city 2x3. Capua was retaken by the Romans 211, and Tarentum log. After the defeat and death of his brother Hasdrubal at the Metaurus, in marching into Italy, 2oy, Hannibal retired to Bruttium, and remained inactive, till recalled to Carthage, on Scipio's invasion of Africa, 203. He was totally de
feated at Zama, 202, and fled to Adrumetum, and thence to Syria. He advised King An tiochus III., the Great, who was at war with the Romans, 193, to invade Italy, an advice which he did not act on. Peace was granted Antiochus, too, on condition of delivering Hannibal, who then fled to King Prusias I., of Bithynla, whom he assisted against King Eumenes of Pergamus, a Roman ally, and whom he urged to war with Rome. L. Q. FlaminTnus was sent from Rome to Prusias to demand the surrender of Hannibal, who, to avoid compromising his host, killed himself with poison (which he always carried in a ring). 083, aged zo, an'event celebrated with great rejoicings in Rome. Hannibal was taught Greek by a Spartan, Sosilus, and wrote some books in that language. After Zama, he was very apprehensive for his life, which, however, had never been attempted by any of his soldiers. From the inclemency of the weather and the hardships of his early campaigns in Italy, he lost the sight of one eye. He was noted for his humanity and magnanimity. His conqueror Scipio called him one of the greatest of gene rals, and ranked him next to King Pyrrhus, the Epirot. 2, Son of Giscon, when trying to relieve Segesta, was overpowered by Hermo crates, an exiled Syracusan.